Yes, antique firearms predating 1899 are considered non-firearms by the BATF. Your state or local jurisdiction my have other ideas. Best to check local laws... The original 45-70... The Springfield Trapdoor. This rifle has always intrigued me so I decided to find one and see how well I liked it and what I could do with it. Well, I ended up with two. The first rifle I bought had been sporterized back, hmm, I'd say 1920s or '30s. Stock was cut down and the barrel shortened to 26". They had sanded the stock and applied some shiny varnish that gave the wood a slight yellow or orange hue. This Trapdoor is an 1884 model, the serial # puts it in April to May 1885 production. It has the original Buffington rear sight. Since it's not considered a firearm I was able to purchase the rifle and have it shipped directly to me from of all places California. No transfer needed. Because it was already modified from original I had no qualms doing further modifications. My intention was to make it look more like an original issue Cavalry Carbine... Think Custer's Last Stand! The Cavalry Carbine had a 22" barrel so I cut this one down, filed it square and crowned it by hand. Now the stock, whoever cut it down took too much off the fore end. I cut a small piece off the front to give a flat area to add another piece of wood and reshape. Then I found a saddle bar and ring. Inlet the stock and secured it with the screws that hold the lock in place. Lightly sanded the stock to remove the varnish, stained dark walnut and oiled. Also did a rustic reblue of all metal parts. Had a new front sight soldered on and found it was still a bit too short so I added some silver solder to the top with a little extra to file down when sighting in. Sorry, I accidently erased the "before" photos from my phone but here are the "after" or finished photos. I'm loading my own ammunition using modern smokeless powder but at the original black powder pressures. 22 grains of IMR4198 under a 450 grain cast bullet is very close to the original carbine load of 55 grains black powder under a 450 grain bullet. Not sure velocity yet but figure in the 1100-1200 fps. Here's my sight in target, took through the spotting scope. Range: 100 yards Not sure why group one was spread out... Cold barrel, oil, not used to the small sights or just bad eye sight? All the above probably. You can see that things improved as I made adjustments to windage and elevation which resulted in the final group in the lower target. I'm using factory hard cast bullets but plan on casting my own with softer lead using a Lee hollow base mold like the original ammo. So, why post this here... Well I think it's a viable firearm for a few reasons. 1. Little hassle to obtain. 2. Real easy to reload using a Lee Classic loader. 4. Fairly easy on powder, (22 gr.) 5. Good to 150-200 yards for taking small to large game (brush gun). The slow 450 gr. bullet still has a lot of energy and it does't destroy meat like a modern hunting rifle. 6. Report can be much quieter. 7. And it's just darn good fun to shoot. You learn to make every shot count being a single shot. It has fairly light recoil and easy to pack. Anyway, it's my non-firearm rifle.