Civics U.S. Supreme Court says No License Necessary To Drive Automobile On Public Highways/Streets

Discussion in 'Freedom and Liberty' started by Ganado, Oct 29, 2015.


  1. VHestin

    VHestin Farm Chick

    Was just talking with neighbor the other day how a driver's license is a fiction(as in not legally required). A commercial driver's license is, but not a personal use one. It has become accepted as a legal truth because people either aren't educated about their rights, or just don't want to stand up for them.
     
  2. VisuTrac

    VisuTrac Ваша мать носит военные ботинки Site Supporter+++

    It's going to be a personal choice as speaking truth to power has it's consequences up to and including your freedom/life.
     
  3. VHestin

    VHestin Farm Chick

    Yep, and that's why things have gotten the way they are, people are afraid of consequences, they want privileges without responsibility. And it doesn't work that way.
     
    Brokor likes this.
  4. Airtime

    Airtime Monkey+++

    Sadly, licenses and permits too often are when the government takes a right away from you (in some cases allegedly because they don't trust you to exercise it safely for others) and then sells it back to you. More sad, is often the payment you make is to compensate the folks for their time doing the taking and selling back.
     
    Ganado likes this.
  5. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    Hello Ganado,

    Yes, I have seen this article before and looked up the cases cited therein (see proof below). The Supreme Court Of The United States has NEVER held that "no license is necessary to drive [an] automobile on public highways/streets." This legal conclusion is based on a series of misunderstandings about the law. These misunderstandings are explained below along with the truth about the law. I hope this helps.

    THE "IF NO COMMERCE, NO DRIVER'S LICENSE IS NEEDED HOAX"

    FIRST, SEE THE HOAX HERE: .
    (Go to:43:30-44:10; 49:30-50:10; 55:00-55:30; 104:00-106:00; 118:30-119:20; & 225:00-225:30. These are the exact times of the hoax.).

    THE HOAX:
    Amateur legal theorist, Eddie Craig, falsely claims that the STATES CANNOT require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses UNLESS THEY ARE ENGAGED IN “[interstate] COMMERCE". But, this claim is EXACTLY BACKWARDS from (and "OPPOSITE" to) the truth.

    THE TRUTH:
    As explained below, the STATES CAN require drivers to have driver's licenses to drive motor vehicles ONLY IF THEY ARE "NOT" ENGAGED IN "[interstate] COMMERCE". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    BACKGROUND:
    Unknown to Eddie Craig, the original source of the word, “COMMERCE”, as used in connection with driver’s license law is Art. 1, Sec. 8, Clause 3 of the U.S. Constitution. READ THE THIRD (3RD) CLAUSE HERE. http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/page/article-i-section-8. This clause is known as the "INTERSTATE COMMERCE CLAUSE". Commerce Clause. This clause empowers the FEDERAL government (ONLY) to regulate driver’s licenses ONLY IF the driver IS ENGAGED IN “COMMERCE among [between] the several states” (called “INTERSTATE COMMERCE”).

    On the other hand, the tenth amendment reserved to the STATES the power to regulate driver's licenses IN ALL OTHER CONTEXTS NOT DELEGATED TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT in the U.S. Constitution (including driving while "NOT" engaged in "[interstate] COMMERCE"). Tenth Amendment. This is why the STATES CAN regulate driver's licenses ONLY IF the driver IS "NOT" ENGAGED IN "[interstate] COMMERCE". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    CONSTITUTIONAL LAW:
    Unknown to Eddie Craig, the U.S. Constitution divided the powers (divided legal jurisdiction) between the FEDERAL government and the STATE governments. This division of powers (division of jurisdiction) WAS BASED ON LEGAL SUBJECT MATTER. The U.S. Constitution only empowered the FEDERAL government to regulate a TINY LIST of legal SUBJECTS that were expressly delegated to it in the U.S. Constitution. The tenth amendment reserved to the STATES the power (the jurisdiction) to regulate EVERYTHING ELSE (ALL OTHER LEGAL SUBJECTS NOT DELEGATED TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IN THE U.S. CONSTITUTION). But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    SIMPLIFICATION:
    Under this constitutional division of powers (division of jurisdiction) between the FEDERAL and STATE governments, a legal subject must be regulated EITHER by FEDERAL law OR by STATE law, BUT NOT BY BOTH. So, if a legal subject IS governed by FEDERAL law, it IS NOT governed by STATE law. Likewise, if a legal subject IS governed by STATE law, it IS NOT governed by FEDERAL law. As a result, FEDERAL and STATE governments DO NOT REGULATE THE SAME LEGAL SUBJECTS, THEY REGULATE THE "OPPOSITE" LEGAL SUBJECTS. But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    PURPOSE:
    The purpose of this constitutional division of powers was to ensure harmony between the FEDERAL and STATE governments by DIVIDING between them the LEGAL SUBJECTS that each was empowered to regulate. But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    Thus, contrary to Eddie Craig's FALSE claims at 43:30-44:00 here, , it is NOT true that STATE traffic & transportation codes are "BASED ON" the FEDERAL traffic & transportation codes because FEDERAL law and STATE law regulate "OPPOSITE" legal subjects.

    NOTE: For an EXPERT EXPLANATION of the these BASICS of Constitutional law, read the FIRST ELEVEN (11) paragraphs of the SIXTH (6th) COMMENT here. Rod Class & his many hoaxes.

    CONCLUSION:
    If "YOU ARE" a driver engaged in "[interstate] COMMERCE", then you are governed by FEDERAL law (which requires you to have a drivers license to drive a motor vehicle). Conversely, if YOU ARE "NOT" a driver engaged in "[interstate] COMMERCE", then you are governed by STATE law (which requires you to have a driver's license to drive a motor vehicle). Either way, A DRIVER'S LICENSE IS REQUIRED TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE. But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    APPLICATION:
    So, if you are a driver who has successfully proven (to law enforcement officers and/or to courts) that you WERE "NOT" engaged in "interstate COMMERCE" (as Eddie Craig recommends), then you have just CONCLUSIVELY PROVEN THAT YOU ARE GOVERNED BY STATE LAW (which requires you to have a driver's license to drive a motor vehicle). But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    THE ACTUAL REAL LAW ITSELF ON THIS SUBJECT:

    Note (BELOW) that this amateur legal theory HAS A 100% FAILURE RATE!

    OVER A CENTURY AGO, THE SUPREME COURT HELD THAT THE STATES HAD THE RIGHT TO REQUIRE ALL DRIVERS OF ALL MOTOR VEHICLES TO HAVE DRIVER'S LICENSES, WHETHER OR NOT THE DRIVER WAS ENGAGED IN "INTERSTATE COMMERCE" (exactly OPPOSITE to what Eddie Craig falsely claims).

    1). Hendrick v. Maryland, Hendrick v. Maryland, 235 US 610 - Supreme Court 1915 - Google Scholar. In this case, the United States Supreme Court held, "... A STATE MAY rightfully prescribe uniform regulations... in respect to the operation upon its highways of ALL MOTOR VEHICLES —— those moving in interstate commerce AS WELL AS OTHERS [NOT MOVING INTERSTATE COMMERCE!!!]. And to this end it [THE STATE] MAY REQUIRE the REGISTRATION OF SUCH VEHICLES and THE LICENSING OF THEIR DRIVERS... . This is but an exercise of THE POLICE POWER uniformly recognized AS BELONGING TO THE STATES [under the tenth amendment]... ." (in the 8th paragraph at about 70% through the text).

    FACT: This decision (above) is from the HIGHEST court in the United States. This court is the ONLY court in the United States which has the power to overturn this decision. But, it has NEVER done so. That means this decision is still the SINGLE CONTROLLING LAW on this subject IN EVERY STATE AND FEDERAL JURISDICTION IN THE UNITED STATES. So, if you find ANY decision from ANY court ANYWHERE in the United States which contains ANY language of ANY type which you interpret as preventing THE STATES from requiring drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses, then YOU HAVE INTERPRETED THAT OTHER DECISION WRONG! There has NEVER been ANY decision from ANY court in the United States which holds, "STATES may not require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses". But, even if there were such a decision, this decision above would overturn it.

    NOTE: Since this decision, CONGRESS (in compliance with this decision and in compliance with Art. 1, Sec. 8, clause 3, U.S. Const.) passed “NATIONAL” (FEDERAL) legislation regulating ONLY those drivers WHO WERE ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE (Title 49). Under the tenth amendment and under this decision (above), this reserved unto THE STATES the power to regulate ONLY those drivers WHO WERE “NOT” ENGAGED IN "INTERSTATE COMMERCE". In this sense, FEDERAL law and STATE law are now "OPPOSITES" of one another. But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    2. El v. Richmond Police Officer Opdyke, EL v. RICHMOND POLICE OFFICER OPDYKE, Dist. Court, ND California 2004 - Google Scholar. In this case, an amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued an officer who arrested him at a traffic stop. The case reads, "El [the amateur legal theorist] acknowledges that he does not have an 'active' driver's license, but contends that 'IF A PERSON IS NOT ENGAGING IN COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY ON THE HIGHWAYS AND BYWAYS... THAT PERSON DOES NOT NEED A DRIVER'S LICENSE TO TRAVEL IN HIS OWN PRIVATE PROPERTY' [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]... ." (at the 3rd paragraph at about 30% though the text). But the court held otherwise and wrote, "[T]HE SUPREME COURT [HAS] STATED: The use of the public highways by motor vehicles, with its consequent DANGERS, renders the reasonableness and NECESSITY OF REGULATION apparent. THE UNIVERSAL PRACTICE [AMONG THE STATES] IS TO REGISTER OWNERSHIP OF VEHICLES AND TO LICENSE THEIR DRIVERS. ANY [read this term again] appropriate means BY THE STATES to insure competence and care on the part of its [DRIVER'S] LICENSEES and to protect others using the highway is consonant with [COMPLIES WITH] due process. (citation omitted). NOTABLY, [CONTRARY TO THE FALSE CLAIMS OF EDDIE CRAIG] THE SUPREME COURT DID NOT LIMIT ITS HOLDING [IN THIS REGARD] TO COMMERCIAL USES OF PUBLIC HIGHWAYS [read this sentence again]." (at the 12th paragraph at about 70% through the text). Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    3. Scalpi v. Town Of East Fishkill, SCALPI v. TOWN OF EAST FISHKILL, Dist. Court, SD New York 2016 - Google Scholar. In this case, an amateur legal theorist sued a town and government officials for her many arrests for driving without a driver's license. The case reads, "Plaintiff [the amateur legal theorist] maintains she '[THERE IS NO LAW]... MAKING A DRIVER'S LICENSE MANDATARY... UNLESS... OPERATING... A VEHICLE FOR PROFIT [MEANING FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES].'" But, the court held otherwise and cited the following holdings from other cases with approval "... 'THE POWER OF THE STATE TO REGULATE THE USE OF ITS HIGHWAYS IS BROAD AND PERVASIVE'... . (citation omitted). 'A STATE MAY PRESCRIBE REGULATIONS RELATED TO THE OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLES ON ITS HIGHWAYS, INCLUDING REGISTRATION AND LICENSING REQUIREMENTS.' (citation omitted). 'AN INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT HAVE A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE.' ... (citation omitted). 'IT IS BEYOND DISPUTE THAT STATES MAY IMPOSE DRIVER LICENSING AND VEHICLE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS UPON THEIR CITIZENS [read this phrase again]... .' (citation omitted). '[T]HE CONSTITUTION DOES NOT RECOGNIZE A FUNDAMENTAL 'RIGHT TO DRIVE'. Notably, the Supreme Court has held that states may constitutionally regulate the use of public highways WITHOUT LIMITING [THAT RULE'S APPLICATION]... TO COMMERCIAL USES OF PUBLIC HIGHWAYS [read that sentence again]." (citation omitted). (at the 17th paragraph at about 60% through the text). Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    4. Triemert v. Washington County, TRIEMERT v. Washington County, Dist. Court, Minnesota 2013 - Google Scholar. In this case, an amateur legal theorist sued a county and others for issuing him a ticket for driving without a driver's license. The case reads, "The gist of Triemert's [the amateur legal theorist's] legal theory is that THE DEFINITION OF 'DRIVING' in the [IRRELEVANT] United States Transportation Code ('USTC')... AND ALL STATE TRANSPORTATION CODES DERIVED FROM THE USTC [IMAGINARY CODES WHICH DO NOT EXIST], 'REFERS TO PERSONS WHO ARE LICENSED BY OCCUPATION AND OPERATING A MOTOR VEHICLE IN COMMERCE ENGAGED IN THE COMMERCIAL PURPOSE OF HAULING FREIGHT/CARGO OR PASSENGERS OR BOTH [a claim identical to what Eddie Craig also claims].'... . When he was arrested... , Triemert [claimed he] WAS NOT 'DRIVING' OR OPERATING A 'MOTOR VEHICLE' OR 'ENGAGED IN ANY COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY OR PURPOSE IN THE HAULING OF FREIGHT OR PASSENGERS, ACCORDING TO THIS DEFINITION [referring to irrelevant FEDERAL law]'. Additionally, [he claims that] THE [IRRELEVANT FEDERAL] CODE DEFINES 'MOTOR VEHICLE' AS A CONTRIVANCE USED FOR COMMERCIAL PURPOSES [citing irrelevant FEDERAL law]... . [FINALLY] TRIEMERT CLAIMED HE WAS 'TRAVELING' (NOT DRIVING) IN A 'PRIVATE AUTOMOBILE' (NOT A MOTOR VEHICLE) when he was unlawfully stopped and arrested.." But, the court disagreed and dismissed Triemert's lawsuit. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    5. State v. Joos, TRIEMERT v. Washington County, Dist. Court, Minnesota 2013 - Google Scholar. In this case, an amateur legal theorist appealed his conviction for driving without a proper license. He claimed that... HE DID NOT NEED A DRIVER'S LICENSE because, "ONLY THOSE ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY ARE REQUIRED BY [THE STATE DRIVER'S LICENSE LAW]... TO HAVE A VALID OPERATOR'S LICENSE [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]... ." But, the court disagreed. As it happened, this very same Defendant had already lost an almost identical case before using an almost identical argument. In discussing that earlier case, the court wrote, "[The]... Defendant argued that the term 'OPERATE' as used in [the STATE driver's license law]...'MEANS HAULING FOR HIRE, an activity in which he was not involved when he received the citations [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims].'" In rejecting that argument, the court wrote, "WE DO NOT AGREE WITH DEFENDANT THAT [THE DEFINITIONS OF "OPERATE" IN "STATE" LAW]... EQUATE TO 'HAULING FOR HIRE'." Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    6. Spokane v. Port, Spokane v. Port, 716 P. 2d 945 - Wash: Court of Appeals, 3rd Div. 1986 - Google Scholar. This case reads as follows, "The officer... asked Ms. Port [an amateur legal theorist] for her driver's license... six times. After she refused... , Ms. Port was arrested... for refusal to give information..., no valid operator's license, and [for] resisting arrest... . (at the 2nd paragraph at about 25% through he text). ... Ms. Port claims the STATE licensing statute APPLIES ONLY TO COMMERCIAL OPERATORS OF MOTOR VEHICLES. SHE CLAIMS SINCE SHE WAS NOT ENGAGED IN THE BUSINESS OF TRANSPORTATION, SHE DID NOT VIOLATE THE [STATE DRIVER'S LICENSE LAW]... [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims].'" (at the 3rd to last paragraph at about 90% through the text). But, the court disagreed and wrote,"Ms. Port's ARGUMENT that [the STATE driver's license law]... REQUIRES A LICENSE ONLY FOR THOSE OPERATING COMMERCIAL VEHICLES IS CLEARLY WITHOUT MERIT [read that phrase again]. [The STATE driver's license law]... DEFINES AN OPERATOR OR DRIVER AS 'EVERY PERSON WHO DRIVES OR WHO IS IN ACTUAL PHYSICAL CONTROL OF A VEHICLE [Translation: "commerce" has NOTHING to do with it].' Since Ms. Port was in actual physical control of her vehicle when stopped, she came under the provisions of [the STATE driver's license laws]... ." (citations omitted). (at the final paragraph at about 95% through he text). Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    7. Taylor v. Hale, Taylor v. Hale, Dist. Court, ND Texas 2008 - Google Scholar. In this case, an amateur legal theorist appealed the dismissal of his lawsuit against the judge who presided over his conviction for driving without a driver's license. The court wrote, "Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] appears to contend that HE CANNOT BE REQUIRED TO OBTAIN A DRIVER'S LICENSE BECAUSE HE WAS NOT OPERATING A MOTOR VEHICLE FOR A COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]. [The Plaintiff claimed]... he was MERELY 'TRAVELING'... . [He claimed that] THE STATE... CAN [ONLY] REGULATE 'COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY' through the requirement of a [driver's] license BUT NOT 'TRAVELING' [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]. He contends that the term 'OPERATE' MEANS AND REFERS TO SOMEONE ENGAGING IN COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY in the State [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]. The gravamen [core of] of Plaintiff's argument is that BECAUSE HE WAS 'TRAVELING' AND NOT ENGAGED IN A COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY, HE DID NOT 'OPERATE' A MOTOR VEHICLE and was therefore NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE A DRIVER'S LICENSE [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims].... . THE COURT CONCLUDES THAT PLAINTIFF'S ARGUMENT IS WITHOUT MERIT [read that phrase again]... . That [the] Plaintiff can argue that he was NOT 'OPERATING' a motor vehicle BUT MERELY 'TRAVELING' strains credulity. Plaintiff was traveling, BUT HE WAS ALSO 'OPERATING' A VEHICLE; OTHERWISE, THIS WOULD MEAN THAT THE VEHICLE 'OPERATED' ITSELF AND TOOK A ROUNDTRIP FROM DALLAS TO LAKE JACKSON WITHOUT ANY ACT PERFORMED BY PLAINTIFF. 'OPERATING,' as the word is used in [the STATE driver's license law]... DOES NOT REFER TO COMMERCIAL ACTIVITY [read this phrase again]. To the extent that Plaintiff asserts that the license requirement interferes with his RIGHT TO TRAVEL, such argument is WITHOUT MERIT [read this phrase again]. Requiring one to obtain a license to operate a motor vehicle on a state's public highway IS NOT an impermissible or undue burden on INTERSTATE TRAVEL... . Ensuring that one can safely operate a motor vehicle and is familiar with the traffic laws IS A LEGITIMATE EXERCISE OF A STATE'S POLICE POWERS and presents NO constitutional impediment to the RIGHT TO INTERSTATE TRAVEL [read this phrase again]. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    8. Williams v. Rice, Williams v. Rice, Dist. Court, D. Maryland 2015 - Google Scholar. In this case, Williams, an amateur legal theorist, filed a claim in federal court effectively seeking reversal of his state court convictions for "DRIVING ON A SUSPENDED LICENSE... . . [Williams]... was convicted... , and was sentenced to serve SIX MONTHS IN PRISON... ." In this case, Williams claimed that the state court erred by "deciding that [he]... WAS REQUIRED TO POSSESS A DRIVER'S LICENSE WHEN HE WAS NOT INVOLVED IN COMMERCE UPON THE HIGHWAY [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims].." But, the appellate court disagreed and dismissed Williams' lawsuit. (at the 4th paragraph at about 45% through he text). Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    9. State v. Ferrell, State v. Ferrell, Tenn: Court of Criminal Appeals 2010 - Google Scholar. In this case, the appellate court wrote, "The Defendant, Richard Ferrell [an amateur legal theorist], was convicted of DRIVING ON A SUSPENDED LICENSE. The trial court subsequently sentenced the Defendant to a term of SIX MONTHS... IN JAIL.... . [The] Defendant... testified that at the time of the accident HE WAS 'TRAVELING' AND NOT ENGAGED IN COMMERCE [an amateur comment of a type Eddie Craig would make]." But, the appellate court disagreed and affirmed the conviction. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    10. State v. Williams, State v. Williams, Tenn: Court of Criminal Appeals 2012 - Google Scholar. This case reads, "Appellant, ANTHONY TROY WILLIAMS [A WORLD FAMOUS AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIST], was [convicted by a jury]... FOR DRIVING ON A CANCELED, SUSPENDED OR REVOKED LICENSE, SECOND OFFENSE... .[and]... WAS... SENTENCED... TO SIX MONTHS IN JAIL AND A FINE OF $2,500. On appeal, [WILLIAMS]... argues he is 'NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE A DRIVER'S LICENSE IF HE IS NOT TRAVELING IN COMMERCE [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]. But, the court disagreed and affirmed the conviction. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    11. (Right To Travel) State v. Schmitz, State v. Schmitz, Tenn: Court of Criminal Appeals 2015 - Google Scholar. In this case, Schmitz [an amateur legal theorist] appealed his conviction for DRIVING ON A SUSPENDED LICENSE. On appeal, Schmitz argued, "HE 'WAS NOT ENGAGED IN COMMERCE [such that the STATE traffic laws did not apply to him][a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]... .'' (at the 9th paragraph at about 50% through the text). In response, the court wrote, "This court has previously considered and REJECTED THIS SAME ARGUMENT." (citing State v. Booher). In Booher, the defendant was also convicted of driving without a license. The defendant there argued that "HE WAS ONLY EXERCISING HIS RIGHT... TO USE HIS PRIVATE PROPERTY ON THE PUBLIC HIGHWAY"... AND THAT, "BECAUSE HE WAS NOT ENGAGED IN COMMERCE [the STATE traffic laws did not apply to him] [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]." (at the 12th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 70% through the text). But, the court disagreed and affirmed BOTH convictions. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    12. (Right To Travel) State v. El-Bey, State v. EL-BEY, NJ: Appellate Div. 2016 - Google Scholar. In this case, the Defendant was stopped by police. The officer asked the Defendant for his driver's license, but the Defendant handed the officer "his RIGHT TO TRAVEL DOCUMENTS... . [The "Right To Travel" documents]... contained a birth certificate and documents that stated '[Defendant]... was NOT A DRIVER' and that THE 'VEHICLE WAS NOT A MOTOR VEHICLE [UNDER IRRELEVANT FEDERAL LAW] BECAUSE IT WAS NOT INVOLVED IN COMMERCE AND THEREFORE WAS NOT SUBJECT TO THE LAWS OF THE STATE [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims].'" But, the court disagreed and affirmed the conviction. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    13. State v. O'Connor, State v. O'CONNOR, 2015 Ohio 833 - Ohio: Court of Appeals, 7th Appellate Dist. 2015 - Google Scholar. In this case, O'Connor [an amateur legal theorist] appealed his conviction for DRIVING WHILE LICENSE SUSPENDED. "Appellant urges... that HE IS PERMITTED TO DRIVE IN OHIO WITHOUT A LICENSE AS LONG AS HE IS NOT ENGAGED IN COMMERCIAL DRIVING [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig also falsely claims]." But the appellate court disagreed and affirmed his conviction. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    14. Schilling v. Swick, Schilling v. Swick, 868 F. Supp. 904 - Dist. Court, WD Michigan 1994 - Google Scholar. In this case, an officer stopped Schilling (an amateur legal theorist) and asked him to produce his driver's license, registration and proof of insurance. But, Schilling refused and responded, "DO YOU HAVE ANY PROOF THAT I AM OPERATING IN COMMERCE AT THIS TIME [an amateur comment of a type Eddie Craig would make]?" The officer arrested Schilling and he unsuccessfully sued the officer and others for his arrest. The trial court implicitly held that "commerce" was completely irrelevant to the requirement of a driver's license because it dismissed Schilling's lawsuit and the appellate court here affirmed the dismissal. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    15. Myles v. State, Myles v. State, Tex: Court of Appeals, 1st Dist. 2015 - Google Scholar. In this case, Myles appealed his conviction for DRIVING WITHOUT A VALID LICENSE. On appeal he argued, "THE STATE OF TEXAS CAN ONLY REQUIRE PEOPLE WHO ARE ENGAGED IN 'COMMERCE' WHILE DRIVING ON ITS ROADWAYS TO HAVE A DRIVER'S LICENSE [a false claim identical to what Eddie Craig falsely claims], AND ... WAS NOT A HIRED DRIVER ENGAGED IN COMMERCE [as if that would make any difference]. As Myles explained, 'I don't DRIVE. I just TRAVEL from Point A to Point B [an amateur comment of a type Eddie Craig would make].' Myles never disputed that he was [ALSO] OPERATING A VEHICLE AS HE TRAVELED." Regardless, the appellate court disagreed with Myles' theories and affirmed his conviction. Translation: Contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig, the STATES are authorized (by the U.S. Constitution and by the Supreme Court) to require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses and THAT RULE IS NOT LIMITED TO DRIVERS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE". It is the FEDERAL government (NOT THE STATE GOVERNMENTS) whose driver's license regulations are limited to drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE commerce". But, Eddie Craig does not know enough to even realize this.

    "SUBSTITUTE" CASE LAW:

    Amateur legal theorists cite a number of decisions in support of their false claims that they have a UNREGULATABLE "RIGHT to DRIVE/OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE [read the last four words again]". U.S. Supreme Court Says No License Necessary To Drive Automobile On Public Roads Right to Travel by Jack McLamb | Freedom Of Movement | United States Constitution. But, there is not one single decision in the history of the United States that actually says this. So, amateur legal theorists have come up with a number of decisions which they use as "SUBSTITUTES" for such a decision which recognize the following "ALMOST THERE", "SOUND ALIKE", "LOOK LIKE" "RIGHTS":

    1. The right "TO USE" AN AUTOMOBILE (NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"). Schecter v. Killingsworth, Schecter v. Killingsworth, 380 P. 2d 136 - Ariz: Supreme Court 1963 - Google Scholar (at the 18h paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 45% through he text).

    2. The right "TO USE" THE ROADWAYS (NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"). Escobedo v State, Escobedo v. State of California, 35 Cal. 2d 870 - Cal: Supreme Court 1950 - Google Scholar (at the 10th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 30% through the text). Berberian v. Lussier, Berberian v. Lussier, 139 A. 2d 869 - RI: Supreme Court 1958 - Google Scholar (at the 6th paragraph at about 40% through the text). Holland v. Shackelford, Holland v. Shackelford, 137 SE 2d 298 - Ga: Supreme Court 1964 - Google Scholar (at the 11th paragraph at about 70% through he text). Note that this case is about THE PROPERTY RIGHTS OF NEIGHBORING PROPERTY OWNERS, not about a driver's license.

    3. The right "TO TRAVEL" (NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"). Kent v. Dulles, Kent v. Dulles, 357 US 116 - Supreme Court 1958 - Google Scholar (at the 14th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 30% through the text). Note that his case is about AN INTERNATIONAL PASSPORT, not about a driver's license.

    4. The right to "INTRASTATE TRAVEL", "LOCOMOTION" and "MOVEMENT" (NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"). In Re Barbara White, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...1&q="In+re+Barbara+White"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006 (at the 23rd paragraph at about 60% through he text). Note that this case is about A PROSTITUTE'S RIGHT TO LIVE IN A DESIGNATED "NO PROSTITUTION ZONE" while on probation, not about a driver's license.

    RIGHT v. PRIVILEGE:

    Amateur legal theorists also cite exactly six cases which inartfully characterize DRIVING/OPERATING a motor vehicle as a "RIGHT". Amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe that if an act is inartfully characterized a "RIGHT" (rather than a "PRIVILEGE"), then that "RIGHT" CANNOT be REGULATED, GRANTED, DENIED or REVOKED by the state or federal government. But, this is not so and amateur legal theorists would know this if they bothered to read the entire decisions, rather than merely part of them.

    Note that NONE of the decisions below say that "DRIVING" or "OPERATING" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE" is a "RIGHT". But, amateur legal theorists nevertheless use the following decisions as "SUBSTITUTES" for such a decision anyway.

    1). Thompson v Smith, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...366&q="Thompson+v.+Smith"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. This case recognized the RIGHT "TO TRAVEL", "TO TRANSPORT", "TO USE THE ORDINARY AND USUAL CONVEYANCES OF THE DAY" and "TO DRIVE A HORSE-DRAWN CARRIAGE OR WAGON". But most importantly, this case also recognized the "RIGHT" "TO OPERATE AN AUTOMOBILE" (NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"). (beginning in the 45th paragraph at about 60% through he text). But, IMMEDIATELY THEREAFTER, the very same case reads, "THE EXERCISE OF SUCH A COMMON RIGHT THE [GOVERNMENT]... MAY, UNDER ITS POLICE POWER, REGULATE IN THE INTEREST OF THE PUBLIC SAFETY AND WELFARE [MEANING THE GOVERNMENT MAY REQUIRE DRIVER'S LICENSES]... . THE REGULATION OF THE... RIGHT TO DRIVE A PRIVATE AUTOMOBILE ON THE STREETS... MAY BE ACCOMPLISHED IN PART BY THE [GOVERNMENT]... GRANTING, REFUSING AND REVOKING... PERMITS ["DRIVER'S LICENSES"] TO DRIVE AN AUTOMOBILE ON ITS STREETS [read this sentence AGAIN and AGAIN]. So, this alleged "right" is what most courts characterize as a "privilege" BECAUSE IT CAN BE REGULATED, GRANTED, DENIED and REVOKED. Thus, contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig and other amateur legal theorists, this case DOES NOT authorize driving/operating a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE and this case DOES NOT PREVENT THE STATES FROM REQUIRING DRIVER'S LICENSES. Indeed, the reverse is true. Not that it makes any difference, but this case has no application outside of Virginia anyway.

    2). Adams v. City of Pocatello, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...adams+v+City+of+Pocatello"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "The RIGHT TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE upon the public streets and highways IS NOT A MERE PRIVILEGE. IT IS A RIGHT... ." But, THE VERY NEXT PARAGRAPH READS, "The RIGHT of a citizen TO OPERATE a motor vehicle upon the public streets and highways, IS SUBJECT TO REASONABLE REGULATION [LIKE THE REQUIREMENT OF A DRIVER'S LICENSE] BY THE STATE IN THE EXERCISE OF ITS POLICE POWER [citing Thompson v. Smith (directly above) as authority which characterized operating an automobile as a REGULATABLE, GRANTABLE, DENIABLE and REVOCABLE "right".]... ." So, this alleged "right" is what most courts call a "privilege" BECAUSE IT CAN BE REGULATED, GRANTED, DENIED and REVOKED. Thus, contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig and other amateur legal theorists, this case DOES NOT authorize driving/operating a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE and this case DOES NOT PREVENT THE STATES FROM REQUIRING DRIVER'S LICENSES. Indeed, the reverse is true. Not that it makes any difference, but this case has no application outside of Idaho anyway.

    3). Teche Lines, Inc. v. Danforth, https://www.courtlistener.com/opinion/3544987/teche-lines-inc-v-danforth/. THIS CASE IS NOT A DRIVER'S LICENSE CASE. This case involved a challenge to a Mississippi statute which prohibited drivers from stopping vehicles along roadsides unless the road shoulder and the remaining roadway clearance was of a specified minimum size. This statute effectively banned all stops along roadsides except for emergencies and made it difficult for bus companies to pick up and drop off their customers. The court held that the "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" included the "RIGHT TO STOP" along roadsides "for usual and customary purposes" and quoted Thompson v. Smith (the third case above) as authority which characterized operating an automobile as a REGULATABLE, GRANTABLE, DENIABLE and REVOCABLE "right". But, TWO PARAGRAPHS LATER, this very same case reads, "...[T]he exercise thereof [of this so-called "right" to operate an automobile] MAY BE REASONABLY REGULATED BY LEGISLATIVE ACT IN PURSUANCE OF THE POLICE POWER OF THE STATE [INCLUDING THE REQUIREMENT OF A DRIVER'S LICENSE]." So, this alleged "right" is what most courts characterize as a "privilege" BECAUSE IT CAN BE REGULATED, GRANTED, DENIED and REVOKED. Thus, contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig and other amateur legal theorists, this case DOES NOT authorize driving/operating a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE and this case DOES NOT PREVENT THE STATES FROM REQUIRING DRIVER'S LICENSES. Indeed, the reverse is true. Not that it makes any difference, but this case has no application outside of Mississippi anyway.

    "CRIMINAL STOPS" v. "TRAFFIC STOPS":

    AMATEUR LEGAL THEORISTS MISTAKELY BELIEVE THAT AN OFFICER MUST ACTUALLY WITNESS A "CRIME" BEFORE HE/SHE MAY LAWFULLY MAKE A ROUTINE "TRAFFIC" STOP. But, this is not so.

    Unknown to amateur legal theorists, THERE ARE TWO (2) DIFFERENT TYPES OF STOPS INVOLVING OFFICERS AND MOTOR VEHICLES. There are "CRIMINAL" stops and there are "TRAFFIC" stops. "CRIMINAL" stops involve "CRIMES" (like selling illegal drugs or possessing stolen property) which are NOT MERE "TRAFFIC" VIOLATIONS. On the other hand, "TRAFFIC" stops involve "TRAFFIC" violations (like speeding or having expired tags) which ARE NOT "CRIMES". So, while both types of stops involve motor vehicles and officers, "CRIMINAL" stops and "TRAFFIC" stops are TWO ENTIRELY DIFFERENT THINGS. The law on "CRIMINAL" stops DOES NOT apply to routine "TRAFFIC" stops. Instead, "CRIMINAL" law applies to "CRIMINAL" stops and "TRAFFIC" law applies to routine "TRAFFIC" stops. So, while a "CRIME" is necessary in a "CRIMINAL" stop, no "CRIME" is necessary for a routine "TRAFFIC" stop (only a TRAFFIC violation is). But, amateur legal theorists get these TWO ENTIRELY DIFFERENT legal subjects CONFUSED and therefore mistakenly conclude that an officer must actually witness a "CRIME" (like selling illegal drugs) to lawfully stop a driver for a "TRAFFIC" violation (like having an expired tag). But, this is not so. See the cases below.

    4). People v. Horton, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...rton"+"with+freedom+from"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006 NOTE: This case involves a "CRIMINAL" stop, not a "TRAFFIC" stop. And, "CRIMINAL" law does not apply to "TRAFFIC" stops. But, amateur legal theorists confuse "CRIMINAL" law with "TRAFFIC" law and therefore mistakenly interpret this case to mean that an officer may not lawfully make a routine "TRAFFIC" stop unless the officer has witnessed the driver engaged in a "CRIME".

    In this case, there was NO "TRAFFIC" VIOLATION (like speeding or having an expired tag) to justify a routine "TRAFFIC" stop. Instead, the officer here made a "CRIMINAL" stop of a car SOLELY BECAUSE IT CONTAINED YOUNG PEOPLE. The officer saw marijuana in the car (REFLECTING THE "CRIME" OF POSSESSION) and arrested the occupants. In holding the "CRIMINAL" stop unconstitutional, the court recognized, "[T]he RIGHT of the citizen TO DRIVE on a public street WITH FREEDOM FROM POLICE INTERFERENCE [referring to ILLEGAL"CRIMINAL" STOPS], UNLESS HE IS ENGAGED IN SUSPICIOUS CONDUCT ASSOCIATED... WITH CRIMINALITY... [NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"]." (at the 6th paragraph at about 75% through the text). Thus, contrary to the claims of amateur legal theorists, this case DOES NOT require officers to witness a "CRIME" to make a lawful "TRAFFIC" stop, this case does not authorize driving/operating a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE and this case DOES NOT PREVENT THE STATES FROM REQUIRING DRIVER'S LICENSES. Not that it makes any difference, but this case does has no application outside of California anyway.

    5). People v. Glover, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...rton"+"with+freedom+from"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. This case involves a "CRIMINAL" stop, not a "TRAFFIC" stop. And, "CRIMINAL" law does not apply to "TRAFFIC" stops. But, amateur legal theorists confuse "CRIMINAL" law with "TRAFFIC" law and therefore mistakenly interpret this case to mean that an officer may not lawfully make a routine "TRAFFIC" stop unless the officer has witnessed the driver engaged in a "CRIME".

    In this case, there was NO "TRAFFIC" VIOLATION (like running a stop sign or driving the wrong way on one-way street) to justify a routine "TRAFFIC" stop. Instead, the police here set up a roadblock SOLELY TO CATCH AN ARMED ROBBER (a "CRIMINAL") fleeing the scene of the "CRIME". The police made a "CRIMINAL" stop of every single car on the road. The police caught the robber. But, the court held that the "CRIMINAL" stop was unconstitutional and quoted the Horton case (directly above) which recognized "[T]he RIGHT of the citizen TO DRIVE on a public street with FREEDOM FROM POLICE INTERFERENCE [referring to ILLEGAL "CRIMINAL" STOPS], UNLESS HE IS ENGAGED IN SUSPICIOUS CONDUCT ASSOCIATED... WITH CRIMINALITY [NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"]." Thus, contrary to the claims of amateur legal theorists, this case DOES NOT require officers to witness a "CRIME" to make a lawful "TRAFFIC" stop, this case does not authorize driving/operating a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE and this case DOES NOT PREVENT THE STATES FROM REQUIRING DRIVER'S LICENSES. Not that it makes any difference, but this case is has no application outside of California anyway.

    6. Mills v. District Of Columbia, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...rton"+"with+freedom+from"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006 (at the 2nd TO LAST paragraph). In this case, the was NO "TRAFFIC" VIOLATION to justify a routine "TRAFFIC" stop (like speeding). Instead, the police here set up roadblocks around a HIGH CRIME AREA after dark and effectively made "CRIMINAL" stops of every driver seeking to enter crime area for questioning. If the driver could not provide a satisfactory reason for entering the area, the police DENIED THE DRIVER ACCESS TO THE AREA. The court held that such a practice was unconstitutional and wrote, "It cannot be [denied]... that citizens have a RIGHT TO DRIVE UPON [ALL OF] THE PUBLIC STREETS... ABSENT A CONSTITUTIONAL REASON FOR LIMITING THEIR ACCESS [TO A PARTICULAR AREA OF PUBLIC STREETS]" (NOT the alleged right "TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"). Thus, contrary to the claims of amateur legal theorists, this case DOES NOT authorize driving/operating a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE and this case DOES NOT PREVENT THE STATES FROM REQUIRING DRIVER'S LICENSES. Not that it makes any difference, but this case is has no application outside of the District Of Columbia anyway.

    The case below explains it well.

    Spokane v. Port, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...597120&q="Spokane+v.+port"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. "[The terms] 'RIGHT' and 'PRIVILEGE' have assumed a VARIETY OF MEANINGS, DEPENDING UPON THE CONTEXT IN WHICH THEY ARE USED... . Whether it is termed a RIGHT or PRIVILEGE, ONE'S ABILITY TO TRAVEL [USE AND DRIVE/OPERATE] ON PUBLIC HIGHWAYS IS ALWAYS SUBJECT TO REASONABLE REGULATION BY THE STATE IN THE EXERCISE OF ITS POLICE POWER. (citations omitted). [TRAVELING, USING AND DRIVING/OPERATING ON PUBLIC ROADWAYS]... IS ALWAYS SUBJECT TO SUCH REASONABLE REGULATION ... UNDER THE [STATE'S] POLICE POWER. (citation omitted)... . 'STATES MAY... REQUIRE DRIVER'S LICENSES... .' (quoting the SUPREME COURT decision in Hendrick v. Maryland, THE VERY FIRST CASE AT THE VERY TOP, WHICH IS STILL THE LAW TODAY). (at the 4th paragraph at about 40% through the text).

    Thus, whether DRIVING/OPERATING a motor vehicle is characterized as a "RIGHT" or a "PRIVILEGE", THE STATES MAY REQUIRE DRIVERS/OPERATORS OF MOTOR VEHICLES TO HAVE DRIVER'S LICENSES. Drivers/operators of motor vehicles do not have an UNREGULATABLE "RIGHT" to drive/operate WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE. And, there is no decision in the history of the United States that says so. NONE!

    SHUTTLESWORTH V. BIRMINGHAM:

    Finally, amateur legal theorists cite Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham in support of their false claims that a person may "ignore" STATE driver's license laws and drive/operate a motor vehicle without a driver's license "with impunity". How do amateur legal theorists reach this absurd result? This is because six cases (shown directly above) inartfully characterize driving/operating a motor vehicle as a "RIGHT" (although they also hold that this "RIGHT" may be regulated, granted, denied and revoked, OR what most courts characterize as a "PRIVILEGE"). Regardless, because they mistakenly conclude that operating/driving a motor vehicle is a UNREGULATABLE "RIGHT', amateur legal theorists mistakenly conclude that ALL DRIVER'S LICENSE LAWS IN THE COUNTRY MUST BE "UNCONSTITUTIONAL". Then, amateur legal theorists combine that mistaken conclusion with the following language in Shuttlesworth v. Birmingham which reads in part, "[A] person faced with such an UNCONSTITUTIONAL LICENSING LAW MAY IGNORE IT AND ENGAGE WITH IMPUNITY IN THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT... ." https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...ttlesworth+v.+Birmingham"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. But, see the WHOLE TRUTH about this language below.

    In Shuttlesworth, the City of Birmingham had in force an ordinance which required all leaders/organizers of all political marches to apply for and to obtain a "LICENSE" from a City Commission PRIOR TO such a political march. The City Commissioners which reviewed all such applications were all WHITE and had COMPLETE, UNLIMITED DISCRETION to grant or deny such permits.

    A black minister seeking to hold such a political march in Birmingham in protest of racial injustice twice attempted to apply for such a permit and was twice told by the city (before even filing out the application) that a permit would not be granted. As a result, the minister did not fill out the application or receive a permit. On "Good Friday" in 1963, the minister led the subject march for four blocks on the sidewalks of Birmingham and was arrested, convicted and sentenced to jail and hard labor for violating the subject LICENSE law.

    The Supreme Court Of The United States reversed the minister's conviction and held that the subject ordinance was unconstitutional because of the COMPLETE, UNLIMITED DISCRETION it afforded city officials TO RESTRAIN FREE SPEECH (not "driving"/"operating" a motor vehicle). The court wrote as follows, "It is settled... that an ordinance which, like this one, makes the peaceful enjoyment of freedoms which THE CONSTITUTION guarantees [referring to the FREEDOM OF SPEECH] contingent upon the uncontrolled WILL [the uncontrolled DISCRETION] of an official——as REQUIRING A PERMIT OR LICENSE which may be granted or withheld IN THE DISCRETION OF SUCH OFFICIAL——is an unconstitutional CENSORSHIP OR PRIOR RESTRAINT upon the enjoyment of those [CONSTITUTIONAL] freedoms [referring to THE FREEDOM OF SPEECH]." (citation omitted). ...[A] person faced with SUCH AN UNCONSTITUTIONAL [FREE SPEECH] LICENSING LAW [which affords a government official the COMPLETE, UNLIMITED DISCRETION TO GRANT OR DENY THE LICENSE] may ignore it and engage with impunity IN THE EXERCISE OF THE RIGHT OF FREE EXPRESSION [read the last NINE words again] for which the law purports to require a [FREE SPEECH] LICENSE." (at the 5th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 25% through the text). Thus, by its own terms, the ruling in this case IS LIMITED TO "THE RIGHT OF FREE EXPRESSION" (not the alleged "RIGHT TO DRIVE/OPERATE" a motor vehicle "WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE".

    Thus, contrary to the claims of Eddie Craig and other amateur legal theorists, this case does not authorize people to "ignore [the driver's license laws]... and engage with impunity in the exercise of the [alleged] RIGHT [to "DRIVE/OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE"]."

    THERE IS NO CASE IN THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES WHICH HOLDS THAT A PERSON HAS A "RIGHT TO DRIVE/OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE". AND, THOSE ARE THE ONLY WORDS THAT LEGALLY MATTER. "SUBSTITUTE" WORDS AND "SUBSTITUTE" RULINGS AND "SUBSTITUTE" CASES WILL NOT WORK.

    THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL HOAX" & THE "NO DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIRED HOAX"

    FIRST, SEE THE HOAX HERE:



    THE HOAX I: Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists falsely claim that A PERSON IS NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE A DRIVER’S LICENSE TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE on the grounds that every person has a "RIGHT TO TRAVEL". Thus, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe that the "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is the same thing as the "RIGHT TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE". But, this is not so.

    THE TRUTH: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is merely the JUDICIALLY-recognized RIGHT TO LEAVE ONE STATE, ENTER ANOTHER STATE AND BE TREATED LIKE ANY OTHER CITIZEN OF THAT OTHER STATE. The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" has NOTHING to do with "DRIVING" anything. Under the law, there is no such thing as an "RIGHT TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE". But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    THE HOAX II: Further, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists point out that under FEDERAL law, A PERSON IS NOT REQUIRED TO HAVE A DRIVER'S LICENSE to drive a motor vehicle UNLESS THAT PERSON IS ENGAGED IN "COMMERCE" AMONG ["BETWEEN"] THE "SEVERAL STATES" ("interstate commerce"). See Const., Art. 1, Sec. 8 (listing ALL THE POWERS of Congress). READ THE THIRD (3RD) CLAUSE HERE. http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/page/article-i-section-8. This clause is known as the "[INTERSTATE] COMMERCE CLAUSE". It authorizes the FEDERAL government (only) to regulate "INTERSTATE COMMERCE". https://www.law.cornell.edu/wex/commerce_clause. This clause authorizes the FEDERAL government to require driver's licenses (ONLY) for drivers engaged in "INTERSTATE COMMERCE".

    THE TRUTH: But, what Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know is that STATE LAW ALSO APPLIES TO THE SAME PERSON AT THE SAME TIME. This is because, under the tenth amendment, STATE LAW GOVERNS THE SUBJECT OF DRIVER'S LICENSES "OUTSIDE" THE CONTEXT OF "INTERSTATE COMMERCE" (IN ALL OTHER CONTEXTS). See the Tenth Amendment here. http://www.annenbergclassroom.org/page/tenth-amendment. And, under STATE law, a person is required to have a driver’s license to drive a motor vehicle WHEN THAT PERSON IS "NOT" ENGAGED IN "INTERSTATE COMMERCE". So, when BOTH FEDERAL law and STATE law are COMBINED AND APPLIED TO THE SAME PERSON AT THE SAME TIME, A PERSON IS REQUIRED TO HAVE A DRIVER’S LICENSE TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE IN ALL CONTEXTS, ALL THE TIME, NO MATTER WHAT (whether or not that person is engaged in "INTERSTATE COMMERCE"). But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    NOTE: For a detailed explanation of just how totally irrelevant "COMMERCE" is to STATE driver's license and traffic & transportation law, see the SECOND (2nd) comment here. http://projectavalon.net/forum4/showthread.php?99564-Eddie-Craig-the-former-deputy-sheriff-hoax. Look for "IF NO COMMERCE, NO DRIVER'S LICENSE IS NEEDED HOAX".


    THE ACTUAL REAL LAW ITSELF ON THE SUBJECT OF DRIVER'S LICENSES AND THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL":

    OVER A CENTURY AGO, THE SUPREME COURT HELD THAT THE STATES HAD THE RIGHT TO REQUIRE ALL DRIVERS OF ALL MOTOR VEHICLES TO HAVE DRIVER'S LICENSES, WHETHER OR NOT THE DRIVER WAS ENGAGED IN "INTERSTATE COMMERCE". But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    1). Hendrick v. Maryland, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...2&q="Hendrick+v.+Maryland"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the United States Supreme Court held, "... A STATE MAY rightfully prescribe uniform regulations... in respect to the operation upon its highways of ALL MOTOR VEHICLES —— those moving in interstate commerce AS WELL AS OTHERS [NOT MOVING INTERSTATE COMMERCE!!!]. And to this end it [THE STATE] MAY REQUIRE the REGISTRATION OF SUCH VEHICLES and THE LICENSING OF THEIR DRIVERS... . This is but an exercise of THE POLICE POWER uniformly recognized AS BELONGING TO THE STATES [under the tenth amendment]... ." (in the 8th paragraph at about 70% through the text).

    FACT: This decision (above) is from the HIGHEST court in the United States. This court is the ONLY court in the United States which has the power to overturn this decision. But, it has NEVER done so. That means this decision is still the SINGLE CONTROLLING LAW on this subject IN EVERY STATE AND FEDERAL JURISDICTION IN THE UNITED STATES. So, if you find ANY decision from ANY court ANYWHERE in the United States which contains ANY language of ANY type which you interpret as preventing THE STATES from requiring drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses, then YOU HAVE INTERPRETED THAT OTHER DECISION WRONG! There has NEVER been ANY decision from ANY court in the United States which holds, "STATES may not require drivers of motor vehicles to have driver's licenses". But, even if there were such a decision, this decision above would overturn it.

    NOTE: Since this decision, CONGRESS (in compliance with this decision and in compliance with Art. 1, Sec. 8, clause 3, U.S. Const.) passed “NATIONAL” (FEDERAL) legislation regulating ONLY those drivers WHO WERE ENGAGED IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE (Title 49). Under the tenth amendment and under this decision (above), this reserved unto THE STATES the power to regulate ONLY those drivers WHO WERE “NOT” ENGAGED IN "INTERSTATE COMMERCE". In this sense, FEDERAL law and STATE law are now "OPPOSITES" of one another. But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    FACT: Under the tenth amendment, THE STATES have the CONSTITUTIONAL "RIGHT" to require driver's licenses of all drivers who are “NOT” ENGAGED IN "INTERSTATE COMMERCE" .

    2). State v. Sullivan, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...icensing+of+their+drivers"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "THE TENTH AMENDMENT to the Constitution of the United States provides, 'The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor prohibited by it to the States ARE RESERVED TO THE STATES... .' WITHIN THIS RESERVATION OF POWERS TO THE INDIVIDUAL STATES, is what has been judicially termed 'THE POLICE POWER.' (citation omitted). '[SUCH A] STATE MAY RIGHTFULLY PRESCRIBE UNIFORM REGULATIONS... in respect to THE OPERATION UPON ITS HIGHWAYS OF ALL MOTOR VEHICLES... . And to this end IT [THE STATE] MAY REQUIRE the registration of such vehicles AND THE LICENSING OF THEIR DRIVERS... . This is but an exercise of THE POLICE POWER uniformly recognized AS BELONGING TO THE STATES [under the tenth amendment and NOT belonging to the FEDERAL government under the tenth amendment]... . (quoting the Supreme Court case directly above). (at the 8th paragraph not including block indented portions at about 45% through the text). Translation: STATE LAW GOVERNS THE REQUIREMENT OF DRIVER'S LICENSES for all vehicles and drivers "NOT" engaged in "interstate COMMERCE".

    3). Chaoui v. City Of Glendora, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...oui+v.+City+Of+Glendora"++&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "The United States Supreme Court has long held that STATES HAVE THE RIGHT TO REGULATE THE USE OF STATE ROADS BY REQUIRING DRIVERS ON THOSE ROADS OBTAIN DRIVER'S LICENSES carry liability insurance, and pay taxes and fees, and that such regulation DOES NOT VIOLATE THE COSTITUTION. (citations omitted). In the absence of national legislation covering the subject, A STATE may rightfully prescribe uniform regulations necessary for public safety and order in respect to the operation upon its highways of all motor vehicles, — those moving in interstate commerce AS WELL AS OTHERS [NOT MOVING IN INTERSTATE COMMERCE!!!]. And to this end IT [THE STATE] MAY REQUIRE the registration of such vehicles AND THE LICENSING OF THEIR DRIVERS... . This is but an exercise of THE POLICE POWER uniformly recognized as BELONGING TO THE STATES [under the tenth amendment and not to the federal government] and essential to the preservation of the health, safety, and comfort of their citizens... ." (quoting the Supreme Court case directly above). (at the 31st paragraph, not including block indented portions at about 75% through the text). Translation: STATE LAW GOVERNS THE REQUIREMENT OF DRIVER'S LICENSES for vehicles and drivers NOT engaged in "interstate COMMERCE".

    4). El v. Richmond Police Officer Opdyke,https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...88&q=MIZRAIM+MOHAMMED+EL,+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "The Supreme Court has held that STATES MAY CONSTITUTIONALLY REGULATE THE USE OF PUBLIC HIGHWAYS. In Reitz v. Mealey, the Supreme Court stated: The use of the public highways by motor vehicles, with its consequent dangers, renders the reasonableness and necessity of such regulation apparent. THE UNIVERSAL PRACTICE [AMONG THE STATES] IS TO register ownership of automobiles AND TO LICENSE THEIR DRIVERS. ANY [read this term again] appropriate means BY THE STATES to insure competence and care on the part of ITS [DRIVER'S] LICENSEES and to protect others using the highway IS CONSANANT WITH [means "complies with"] DUE PROCESS. (citation omitted). [And, contrary to what Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe]... [T]he Supreme Court DID NOT LIMIT ITS HOLDING [ABOUT DRIVER'S LICENSES] TO COMMERICAL USES OF PUBLIC HIGHWAYS." (at the 13th paragraph at about 70% through the text).

    FACT: THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS THE "RIGHT TO DRIVE" WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE.

    5). Commonwealth v. Ascenzi, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=5697942351825850984&q="257+MDA+2016"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "THERE IS NO RIGHT TO DRIVE RECOGNIZED BY THE U.S. CONSTITUTION OR BY ANY STATE CONSTITUTION. Because there is NO CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO DRIVE [driving may be regulated, licensed or prohibited entirely]... ." (beginning in the 2nd TO LAST paragraph at about 95% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    6). State v. Sullivan, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=483036688545450484&q="966+A.2d+919"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "Although there is a well established and fundamental RIGHT TO INTERSTATE TRAVEL, (citation omitted), THERE IS NO CORRESPONDING RIGHT TO OPERATE [means "DRIVE"] A MOTOR VEHCILE[showing that the "right to travel" is NOT THE SAME THING as the alleged "right to drive" a motor vehicle]... .'[T]HERE IS NO RIGHT TO DRIVE an automobile on the roads and highways... .' 'The courts have UNIVERSALLY AGREED THAT AN INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT HAVE THE RIGHT TO OPERATE ["DRIVE"'] A MOTOR VEHICLE.'... . 'Driving on the roads of this State is ... NOT A RIGHT, but a privilege.'" (at the 2nd TO LAST paragraph at about 65% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    7). John Doe No. 1 v. Georgia Dept. Of Public Safety, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...+georgia+"right+to+travel"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held that there is NO SUCH THING AS A "RIGHT TO DRIVE" and cited the following holding of another case with approval, "[THERE IS] NO FUNDAMENTAL 'RIGHT TO DRIVE'... ." The court also cited this holding from another case with approval, "WHILE A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO TRAVEL EXISTS, THERE IS NO FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE [showing that the "right to travel" is NOT THE SAME THING as the alleged "right to drive" a motor vehicle]... ." (at the 4h paragraph from he bottom at about 85% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    8). Matter Of Acevedo v. State Of New York DMV, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...k+State"++"right+to+drive"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "Although the [U.S.] constitution recognizes a RIGHT TO TRAVEL [INTERSTATE] within the United States, referred to as the "RIGHT OF FREE MOVEMENT [BETWEEN THE STATES]" (citation omitted), IT [THE CONSTITUTION] DOES NOT RECOGNIZE A FUNDAMENTAL 'RIGHT TO DRIVE' [drawing a distinction between these two different legal subjects]. (citations omitted). (at the section entitled "Due Process" at about 80% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    9). Matter Of Allen v. New York State DMV, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...+TRAVEL+within+the+United"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. SAME HOLDING VERBATIM. (at the section entitled "Due Process" at about 80% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    10). Matter of Matsen v. State of New York DMV, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...+TRAVEL+within+the+United"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. SAME HOLDING VERBATIM. (at the section entitled "Due Process" at about 80% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    11). Matter of Gillman v. State of New York DMV, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...+TRAVEL+within+the+United"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. SAME HOLDING VERBATIM. (at the section entitled "Due Process" at about 80% through the text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is NOT the same thing as the non-existent "RIGHT TO DRIVE a motor vehicle without a driver's license".

    HERE IS THE DEFINITION OF THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" AS PROVIDED BY THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES.

    12). Jones v. Helms, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...ones+v.+Helms"+"U.S."+1981&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the Supreme Court Of The United States held, "The RIGHT TO TRAVEL... is 'THE RIGHT of a United States citizen TO TRAVEL FROM ONE STATE TO ANOTHER and to take up residence in the State of his choice [and to be treated like any other citizen of that other state].' (citation omitted). (at the 8th paragraph at about 25% through the text). Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL has nothing to do with DRIVING anything. Instead, the RIGHT TO TRAVEL is all about being treated the same as the local state citizens, regardless of which state you happen to be in.

    13). Saenz v. Roe, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=4721017505990988840&q="Saenz+v.+Roe"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "THE 'RIGHT TO TRAVEL'... protects THE RIGHT OF A CITIZEN OF ONE STATE TO ENTER AND LEAVE ANOTHER STATE, THE RIGHT TO BE TREATED AS A WELCOME VISITOR... IN [THAT OTHER]... STATE, and for those travelers who elect to become permanent residents [OF THAT OTHER STATE]... THE RIGHT TO BE TREATED LIKE OTHER CITIZENS OF THAT [OTHER] STATE. (at the 16th paragraph at about 25% through he text). Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL has nothing to do with DRIVING anything. Instead the RIGHT TO TRAVEL is all about being treated the same as the local state citizens, regardless of which state you happen to be in.

    The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" IS NOT ABOUT "DRIVING" ANYTHING.

    14). State v. Sullivan, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...ate+v.+Sullivan"+COA09-705&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "[T]HE RIGHT TO TRAVEL IS NOT SYNONYMOUS WITH [means "IS NOT THE SAME AS"] THE RIGHT TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE on the highways of this State. 'THE OPERATION OF A MOTOR VEHCILE on such highways IS NOT A NATURAL RIGHT. IT IS A CONDITIONAL PRIVILEGE, which may be suspended or revoked under the [state's] POLICE POWER. The license or permit to so operate [a motor vehicle] IS NOT A CONTRACT or property right in a constitutional sense. (at the 8th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 45% through he text). Translation: The "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" is not about "DRIVING" anything.

    15). Miller v. Reed, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...="Miller+v.+Reed"+97-17006&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court quoted another court which wrote, "The plaintiff's argument that the RIGHT TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE is [somehow protected by]... the fundamental RIGHT OF INTERSTATE TRAVEL IS UTTERLY FRIVOLOUS [read this phrase again]. The plaintiff is not being prevented from TRAVELING INTERSTATE by public transportation, by common carrier [means, plane, train, ship, or bus], or [as a PASSENGER] in a motor vehicle driven by someone with a license to drive it. What is at issue here IS NOT HIS RIGHT TO TRAVEL INTERSTATE [which is one legal subject], BUT HIS RIGHT TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE on the public highways [which is an entirely different legal subject], and we have no hesitation in holding that THIS [driving/operating a motor vehicle] IS NOT A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT [read that phrase again]. (Citation omitted). Miller [the amateur legal theorist in this case] DOES NOT HAVE A FUNDAMENTAL 'RIGHT TO DRIVE'." (citation omitted). (at the 13th paragraph at about 60% through he text). Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL interstate and the PRIVILEGE OF DRIVING a car are NOT the same thing. Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL INTERSTATE and the privilege of DRIVING a motor vehicle are not the same thing.

    16). North Carolina v. Howard, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...th+Carolina+ex+rel"+Kasler&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "The RIGHT TO TRAVEL... IS 'THE RIGHT of a United States citizen TO TRAVEL FROM ONE STATE TO ANOTHER AND TO TAKE UP RESIDENCE IN THE STATE OF HIS CHOICE [and be treated like any other citizen of that other state].' (citation omitted).' ... . [In this case,] [T]here is NO EVIDENCE that [the petitioners] are prohibited from TRAVELING FROM ONE STATE TO ANOTHER [which might have otherwise violated the RIGHT TO TRAVEL INTERSTATE]. Petitioners have voluntarily chosen not to disclose their SS [social security] numbers and, thereby, are unable to obtain a drivers license... . Petitioners ARE FREE TO LEAVE THE STATE [under their RIGHT TO TRAVEL]— although THEY MAY NOT DRIVE WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE [drawing a distinction between these two different legal subjects]. (at the section entitled, "2. Right To Travel" at about 95% through the text). Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL INTERSTATE and the privilege of DRIVING a motor vehicle are not the same thing.

    17). Thompson v. Scutt, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...518&q="Thompson+v.+Scutt"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "... Petitioner claims that the State... violated his CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO TRAVEL by enforcing laws PROHIBITING [HIS]... DRIVING WITH A SUSPENDED LICENSE. This claim is WITHOUT MERIT because Petitioner [LIKE ROD CLASS] MISUNDERSTANDS THE NATURE OF THE RIGHT TO TRAVEL. The Supreme Court has recognized a RIGHT TO TRAVEL which is essentially A RIGHT of citizens TO MIGRATE FREELY BETWEEN STATES [not to drive/operate motor vehicles without driver's licenses]. (citation omitted). This right [to travel] includes: [T]HE RIGHT OF A CITIZEN OF ONE STATE TO ENTER AN LEAVE ANOTHER STATE, the right to be treated as a welcome visitor... when temporarily present IN THE SECOND STATE, and, for those travelers who elect to become permanent residents [OF THAT OTHER STATE], the right to be treated like other citizens OF THAT [other] STATE." (at the section entitled, "D. Right to Travel" at about 50% through he text.)

    FAACT: STATE requirements for driver's licenses DO NOT VIOLATE THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL".

    18). Chaoui v. City of Glendora, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...aoui+v.+City+of+glendora"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "To the extent Plaintiff challenges the constitutionality of California's driver's license requirement, ANY SUCH CHALLENGE IS MERITLESS [read this phrase again]. The United States Supreme Court has long held that STATES HAVE THE RIGHT [under the tenth amendment] to regulate the use of state roads BY REQUIRING THAT DRIVERS ON THOSE OBTAIN DRIVER'S LICENSES, carry liability insurance, and pay taxes and fees, AND THAT such REGULATION DOES NOT VIOLATE THE CONSTITUTION... ." The court went on to cite the holding of another case with approval which held, "STATE LAWS REQUIRING VALID DRIVER'S LICENSE TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE DO NOT VIOLATE [THE CONSTITUTIONAL] RIGHT TO TRAVEL." (citation omitted). The court also cited with approval another holding of another case which, "REJECTI[ED] [THE] CONTENTION THAT CALIFORNIA'S ENFORCEMENT OF ITS DRIVER'S LICENSE AND VEHILCE REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS VIOLATED [THE] RIGHT TO TRAVEL." (beginning in the 6th paragraph of the section entitled, "DISCUSSION" at about 75% through he text). Translation: STATE laws requiring driver's licenses DO NOT VIOLATE THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" which is something else entirely.

    19). Robinson v. Huerta, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...inson+v.+Huerta"+++14-0451&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, a pilot who lost his pilot's license claimed that revoking his pilot's license violated his RIGHT TO TRAVEL. But, the court ruled otherwise and wrote, "a number of courts have held that an incidental RESTRICTION ON A SINGLE MODE OF TRANSPORTAION [such as driving a motor vehicle] DOES NOT VIOLATE THE CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO TRAVEL. In support, the court cited a case which, "[FOUND] NO INFRINGEMENT OF THE RIGHT TO TRAVEL... because 'TRAVELERS DO NOT HAVE A CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHT TO THE MOST CONVENIENT FORM OF TRAVEL [such as driving a motor vehicle]... ')... ." The court also cited a case which held that a "DENIAL OF [A] DRIVER'S LICENSE ONLY DENIES THE PLAINTIFF THE ABILITY TO DRIVE A CAR [a single mode of travel], AND THUS "DOES NOT IMPERMISSIBLY BURDEN HIS RIGHT TO TRAVEL [INTERSTATE]." The court then cited another case which held, "A BURDEN ON A SINGLE MODE OF TRANSPORTATION [such as driving a motor vehicle] SIMPLY DOES NOT [VIOLATE]... THE RIGHT TO INTERSTATE TRAVEL." Finally, the court cited a case which "reject[ed] [a] claim that [the] denial of a driver's license violate[d] [the] RIGHT TO INTERSTATE TRAVEL because... THERE IS NO FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO DRIVE." (at the 8h paragraph in the section entitled "3. Right To Travel" at about 75% through the text). Translation: STATE laws requiring driver's licenses DO NOT VIOLATE THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" which is something else entirely.

    20). State v. Williams,https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...ennessee+"right+to+travel"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, WORLD FAMOUS AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIST, ANTHONY TROY WILLIAMS, filed this LOSING appeal following his LOSS at the trial court where he was CRIMINALLY CONVICTED (again) for DRIVING ON A SUSPENDED OR REVOKED DRIVER'S LICENSE, SECOND OFFENSE. Williams was sentenced to SIX MONTHS IN JAIL and a $2,500 FINE. NOTE: This case is one of TEN (10) similar driver's license cases that Williams LOST in the State of Tennessee alone. This number does not even include his many other LOSSES of similar driver's license cases in other states, such as Florida. In this case, the court wrote, "This Court agrees with Appellant's [ANTHONY WILLIAMS'] contention that he enjoys a fundamental RIGHT TO FREEDOM OF TRAVEL. (citation omitted). However, Appellant's [WILLIAMS'] RIGHT TO TRAVEL HAS NOT BEEN INFRINGED UPON BY THE REQUIREMENT BY OUR [STATE] LEGISLATURE THAT AN INDIVIDUAL [LIKE WILLIAMS] HAVE A VALID DRIVER'S LICENSE TO LAWFULLY OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE ON THE PUBLIC HIGHWAYS OF THIS STATE... . The same holds true for the requirement that motor vehicles be registered under the motor vehicle registration law. ... . Arguments identical to Appellant's [WILLIAMS'] have been addressed AND DISMISSED by this Court SEVERAL TIMES [actually providing a long list of those DISMISSALS]." The court upheld the conviction and sentence against Williams. But, the court could not resist making fun of some of Williams' amateur legal theories. In footnote 1, the court wrote, "Throughout the events leading up to this appeal, Appellant REFERRED TO HIMSELF as the 'ATTORNEY IN FACT' FOR THE 'LEGAL FICTION' OF 'ANTHONY WILLIAMS' [making fun of the amateur "SPLIT PERSONALITY" defense]. The record even includes an exhibit PURPORTING TO COPYRIGHT THE NAME 'ANTHONY TROY WILLIAMS' and several variations of the name [as if that could be used as a defense]. Appellant is apparently part of the sovereign citizen movement. For the sake of clarity, we will not distinguish between the attorney in fact and the legal fiction, REFERRING TO BOTH [making fun of Williams' amateur "SPLIT PERSONALITY" defense] as Appellant." NOTE THAT THIS IS THE SAME WORLD FAMOUS "ANTHONY WILLIAMS" WHO STARS IN THE 3 MINUTE VIDEO BELOW.

    21). John Doe No. 1 v. Georgia Dept. Of Public Safety, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...+georgia+"right+to+travel"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, an illegal alien who had not established residency in the state sued the state because it refused to issue him a driver's license. The illegal alien claimed that by so doing, the state had violated his "RIGHT TO TRAVEL". But, the court disagreed and wrote, "[T]he Georgia statutes in question do not violate that right [to travel].... . BURDENS ON A SINGLE MODE OF TRANSPORTAION [such as driving a car] DO NOT [VIOLATE]... THE RIGHT TO INTERSTATE TRAVEL. (citation omitted). [THERE IS] NO FUNDAMENTAL 'RIGHT TO DRIVE'... . (citation omitted). WHILE A FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO TRAVEL EXISTS, THERE IS NO FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO DRIVE A MOTOR VEHICLE [drawing a distinction between these two different legal subjects]. .... . REGULATION OF THE DRIVING PRIVILEGE is a quintessential example of the exercise of THE POLICE POWER OF THE STATE, AND THE DENIAL OF A SINGLE MODE OF TRANSPORTATION [such as driving a motor vehicle] DOES NOT RISE TO THE LEVEL OF A VIOLATION OF THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHT TO INTERSTATE TRAVEL." (at the 4h paragraph from he bottom at about 85% through the text).

    FACT: A person may freely exercise his/her "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" without "DRIVING" ANYTHING by walking, riding a bicycle or horse, or as a "PASSENGER" in an automobile, bus, airplane or helicopter.

    22. State v. Sullivan, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...ATE+v.+SULLIVAN"+COA09-705&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the defendant appealed his convictions for driving an unregistered car and for driving without insurance. The defendant argued that such laws violated his "RIGHT TO TRAVEL". The court disagreed and wrote, "If defendant does not wish to follow these statutory requirements, we remind him that HE MAY EXERCISE HIS RIGHT TO TRAVEL [INTERSTATE] IN A VARIETY OF WAYS, 'If he wishes, HE MAY WALK, RIDE A BICYCLE OR HORSE, OR TRAVEL AS A PASSENGER in an AUTOMOBILE, BUS, AIRPLANE or HELICOPTER. HE CANNOT, HOWEVER, OPERATE ["DRIVE"] A MOTOR VEHCILE ON THE PUBLIC HIGHWAYS [WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE]... ." (citation omitted). Translation: A person can exercise his/her "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" INTERSTATE without DRIVING A MOTOR VEHICLE.

    23). Miller v. Reed, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_...="MIller+v.+Reed"+97-17006&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the State of California refused to issue Miller a driver's license because he would not reveal his social security number. Miller argued that in so doing, California had violated his RIGHT TO TRAVEL. But, the court disagreed and wrote, "The plaintiff is NOT being prevented from TRAVELLING INTERSTATE BY PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION, BY COMMON CARRIER [means plane, bus, train or ship], OR [AS A PASSENGER] IN A MOTOR VEHICLE DRIVEN BY SOMEONE WITH A LICENSE TO DRIVE IT." (at the 4h paragraph, block indented portion, in the section entitled "DISCUSSION" at about 60% through the text). Translation: A person can exercise his/her "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" INTERSTATE without DRIVING A MOTOR VEHICLE.


    3 MINUTE VIDEO.


    SNOPES:
    http://m.snopes.com/supreme-court-rules-drivers-licenses-unnecessary/

    ABOUT SNOOP4TRUTH:
    Snoop4truth is a legal expert and whistle blower who exposes online hoaxes. Snoop4truth did not reveal this information to harm Eddie Craig or Rod Class Instead, Snoop4truth exposed this information solely to reduce the CATASTROPHIC DAMAGE that such INTENTIONAL FRAUD inflicts upon the American people every single day. Had it not been for Rod Class' role in the "Judge DALE Hoax", Snoop4truth would not have exposed this information here.

    The message to all hoaxers and charlatans? Just tell the truth.

     
    3cyl likes this.
  6. Brokor

    Brokor Live Free or Cry Moderator Site Supporter+++ Founding Member

    Snopes is the very LAST place I would go for information verification.

    A sovereign Citizen has the inalienable RIGHT to freely travel, this is beyond contesting.

    However, under current COMMERCIAL "law" created by the corporate oligarchy and since the 1917 Trading With the Enemy Act was amended by FDR in 1933 to include every PERSON living within the jurisdiction of the corporate oligarchy to be licensed, regulated, punished and everything else, this means if you do not want to be pulled over by the Gestapo and beaten, possibly murdered, but most likely thrown into prison, I would reluctantly enter into a contract to carry a driver's license and "register" (another contract) to avoid problems. After all, unless you hold the actual MSO (Manufacturers Statement of Origin) by paying CASH for your car, the State holds the actual TITLE of ownership and you have a CERTIFICATE of title, essentially making you a USER, not an OWNER. One *could* also include with their signature "Under Duress" and the accompanying verbiage I have in my signature for the relevant "law" reserving certain "rights", but only if one also knows what it all means.

    We're not dealing with actual LAW as you may have guessed. What we have is a criminal corporate enterprise operating entirely within a legal system they created to enslave the people and control them because they can't do it with sound Constitutionality. And it all comes back to the money supply and their need to maintain a monopoly, so they devised a scheme to regulate it based on old English mercantile tradition. Notice everything has a monetary value in relation to commercial law -you break a "law" you are punished with a fine. This also holds significance if you understand how it all works. (hint: contracts are legally binding)
     
  7. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    Greetings Brokor,

    It is a privilege to receive a reply to my comment from a founding member of your stature.

    Thank you so much for your comments. I will reply to them individually below.

    1). Snopes is the very LAST place I would go for information verification.
    RESPONSE: Agreed. When it comes to the law, the REAL law itself (of the type I have quoted and provided links to) is the one and only source of accurate information.

    2). A sovereign Citizen...
    RESPONSE: Under the REAL law in the United States, the term "sovereign" DOES NOT APPLY to any INDIVIDUAL (citizen of otherwise). Under the REAL law in the United States, the term "sovereign" is a term that applies ONLY to "We the People" COLLECTIVELY and refers to the GOVERNMENT of "We the People". I'll post the law on this subject for whatever benefit that might be to you.

    3). ... has the inalienable RIGHT to freely travel, this is beyond contesting.
    RESPONSE: YOU ARE ABSOLUTELY, POSITIVELY CORRECT!!! But, you apparently misunderstand what the "right to TRAVEL" actually is. The "right to TRAVEL" does not mean the alleged "right to DRIVE" a motor vehicle WITHOUT A DRIVER'S LICENSE.

    HERE IS THE LEGAL DEFINITION OF THE "RIGHT TO TRAVEL" AS PROVIDED BY THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES.

    Jones v. Helms, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the Supreme Court Of The United States held, "The RIGHT TO TRAVEL... is 'THE RIGHT of a United States citizen TO TRAVEL FROM ONE STATE TO ANOTHER and to take up residence in the State of his choice [and to be treated like any other citizen of that other state].' (citation omitted). (at the 8th paragraph at about 25% through the text). Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL has nothing to do with DRIVING anything. Instead, the RIGHT TO TRAVEL is all about being treated the same as the local state citizens, regardless of which state you happen to be in.

    Saenz v. Roe, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "THE 'RIGHT TO TRAVEL'... protects THE RIGHT OF A CITIZEN OF ONE STATE TO ENTER AND LEAVE ANOTHER STATE, THE RIGHT TO BE TREATED AS A WELCOME VISITOR... IN [THAT OTHER]... STATE, and for those travelers who elect to become permanent residents [OF THAT OTHER STATE]... THE RIGHT TO BE TREATED LIKE OTHER CITIZENS OF THAT [OTHER] STATE. (at the 16th paragraph at about 25% through he text). Translation: The RIGHT TO TRAVEL has nothing to do with DRIVING anything. Instead the RIGHT TO TRAVEL is all about being treated the same as the local state citizens, regardless of which state you happen to be in.

    So, the REAL "right to TRAVEL" has nothing to do with "DRIVING" anything. You should really read the REAL law above on this subject. It will help you enormously.

    4). However, under current COMMERCIAL "law" created by the CORPORATE oligarchy [the system is designed to]... to include every PERSON living within the jurisdiction of the CORPORATION oligarchy... ..
    RESPONSE: I am familiar with all of these claims. But, they are simply not true. In the REAL legal system COMMERCIAL law only applies in real COMMERICAL cases, not to human beings in criminal and traffic cases. In the REAL legal system, their is no such thing a "CORPORATE" jurisdiction (there is only STATE and FEDERAL). I agree that CORPORATE oligarchies do have too much influence over our governmental and the law making process. That influence is terrible. But, it is not true that the state or federal governments are themselves CORPORATIONS which exert "CORPORATE" jurisdiction over all of us.

    5). ... to be licensed, regulated, punished and everything else,
    RESPONSE: The laws behind all of these licenses, regulations and punishments are passed BY PEOPLE WE ELECT TO MAKE THE LAWS. If you do not like our laws, then ELECT different lawmakers who will pledge to change the laws you do not like.

    6). this means if you do not want to be pulled over by the Gestapo and beaten, possibly murdered, but most likely thrown into prison, I would reluctantly enter into a contract to carry a driver's license and "register" (another contract) to avoid problems.
    RESPONSE: All of the law enforcement personnel (who you call "Gestapo") who you claim beat, murder and imprison people are actually appointed and deputized BY PEOPLE WE ELECT TO ENFORCE OUR LAWS which are themselves made by our ELECTED LAW MAKERS. If you do not like the methods of the law enforcement personnel, then ELECT different law enforcement officials (different presidents, governors, county sheriffs, city police chiefs and so forth).

    7). After all, unless you hold the actual MSO (Manufacturers Statement of Origin) by paying CASH for your car, the State holds the actual TITLE of ownership and you have a CERTIFICATE of title, essentially making you a USER, not an OWNER. One *could* also include with their signature "Under Duress" and the accompanying verbiage I have in my signature for the relevant "law" reserving certain "rights", but only if one also knows what it all means.
    RESPONSE: All of the laws relating to TITLES and REGISTRATION are passed BY PEOPLE WE ELECT TO MAKE THE LAWS. If you do not like the laws, then ELECT different lawmakers and the laws will be different. And just so that you know, you cannot actually reserve rights that you do not have.

    8). We're not dealing with actual LAW as you may have guessed. What we have is a criminal CORPORATE ENTERPRISE operating entirely within a legal system they created to enslave the people and control them because they can't do it with sound Constitutionality.
    RESPONSE: I realize this is what you are told, but it simply is not true. I'll send you the REAL law on this subject for whatever benefit that might be to you.

    9). And it all comes back to the money supply and their need to maintain a monopoly, so they devised a scheme to regulate it... .
    RESPONSE: This may actually be true. But, there is no correlation between a state trying to make the roadways safe for law-abiding- motorists and keeping track of who owns which motor vehicle on one hand, and manipulating the money supply for private gain on the other hand.

    10). Notice everything has a monetary value in relation to commercial law -you break a "law" you are punished with a fine. This also holds significance if you understand how it all works. (hint: contracts are legally binding).
    RESPONSE: A "fine" is an alternative to putting people in jail. Yes, the state makes money from fines. But, fining a person is much less harmful to them than jailing them. As for me, I'd rather just pay the fine.

    I'll send you some REAL law on these subjects for whatever benefit that my be to you.

    Thank you so very much for your comments and your thoughtful perspective.

    Best Regards,

    Snoop
     
    Last edited: Oct 11, 2018
    3cyl, DKR and chelloveck like this.
  8. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    The REAL law itself on the subject of our discussion above.

    PERSONAL NOTE TO BROKOR,
    First on a personal note, I am well aware that THE TRUTH about the REAL law and the legal system is NOT POPULAR with amateur legal theorists, is NOT WELCOMED by amateur legal theorists and that it is INCONSISTENT with the belief system of amateur legal theorists.

    But, none of that will make THE TRUTH about the law and the legal system false. THE TRUTH about the REAL law and the legal system WILL STILL BE THE TRUTH. It does not matter whether that TRUTH is POPULAR. ALL THAT REALLY MATTERS IS THAT IT IS THE TRUTH.

    THE "ALL GOVERNMENTS ARE PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT CORPORATIONS HOAX".

    FIRST, SEE THE HOAX HERE:

    ARTICLES:
    https://anticorruptionsociety.com/20...ate-franchise/ (an article actually written by Rodney "DALE" Class while pretending to be "Judge DALE". See paragraphs ACTUALLY NUMBERED "1, 2 & 3")

    https://www.akupressllc.com/150121Cr...ourtDenver.pdf (at page ACTUALLY NUMBERED "3" in the 4th paragraph at about 50% through the text)

    https://scannedretina.com/2014/11/27...erican-people/ (at the first BLOCK INDENTED paragraph IN ALL ITALIC TYPE)

    http://houseofpraani.com/portfolio/itnj/ (at the 2nd paragraph)

    https://globalfreedommovement.org/ex...ith-rod-class/

    VIDEOS:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r7DicAWY4P4 (at :1:00-1:15)

    YOU MUST SEE THE FOLLOWING PORTIONS OF THESE VIDEOS!:
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=05o4CpB9I8g&t=260s (at 2:25-4:00, 5:25-6:15, 6:40-7:30, 7:55-8:50)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JTRPZD3_w5k (at 42:10-42:35, 47:50--49:00)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRnogqeqzxk (at 6:20-6:45, 7:10-7:55, 25:55-26:45)

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQeazE8_Ipk (at 43:15-43:50, 52:30-53:00)

    THE HOAX:
    Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists falsely claim that all governments and all governmental agencies are PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT CORPORATIONS.

    THE TRUTH:
    But, this is not so.

    FACT: In amateur legal theory, the "law" comes ONLY from the claims of other amateur legal theorists (NOT from the WRITTEN WORDS of the REAL LAW itself). But, in the REAL law, the law comes ONLY from the actual WRITTEN WORDS of the REAL LAW itself (NOT from the claims of amateur legal theorists). Consider the REAL law below.

    U.S. v Cooper, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...2&as_sdt=40006 (HOLDING THAT THE UNTIED STATES IS NOT A "CORPORATION"). In this case, a private corporation sought to sue the United States under a federal statute that authorized civil lawsuits against any "person". The private corporation argued that the United States was such a "person" because it was a "corporation" (an artificial legal person). But, the court ruled otherwise and wrote, "While there may be isolated cases which hold that the different states, and even the United States, are "bodies politic and corporate", THEY DO NOT HOLD THAT THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION EXISTING BY THE LAWS OF THE UNTIED STATES [in the way that amateur legal theorists mean it]... . THE UNITED STATES CANNOT, THEREFORE, BE CLASSIFIED AS A CORPORATION EXISTING UNDER THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES [in the way that amateur legal theorists mean it]... ." (in the 3rd to last paragraph of this case).

    (COMMENT CONTINUED:
    The term, "corporation" FOOLS Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists. They mistakenly believe that there is only ONE TYPE OF CORPORATION in the whole world and that EVERY CORPORATION in the whole world IS A PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation. https://anticorruptionsociety.com/20...ate-franchise/ (at the paragraph ACTUALLY NUMBERED "3"). But, this is not so.

    One loose, informal definition of a "corporation" is simply "a separate, legal entity which may enter into contracts in its own name and sue and be sued in its own name". Governments happen to have these same basic characteristics. So, in this sense, AND ONLY IN THIS SENSE, all governments are arguably "corporations" (loosely and informally speaking).

    BUT, THIS IS NOT WHAT ROD CLASS AND OTHER AMATEUR LEGAL THEORISTS MEAN BY CLAIMING THAT ALL GOVERNMENTS ARE "CORPORATIONS". Instead, they mean that ALL governments are corporations WHICH ARE "IN THE BUSINESS" OF STEALING MONEY FROM THE AMERICAN PEOPLE TO GENERATE "PROFITS" FOR THEIR "PRIVATE OWNERS". https://anticorruptionsociety.com/20...ate-franchise/ (at the paragraph ACTUALLY NUMBERED "3"). Such IMAGINARY governmental entities would NOT merely be "corporations". Instead, such IMAGINARY governmental entities would actually be PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporations. THAT IS SOMETHING ENTIRELY DIFFERENT IN THE LAW! NO GOVERNMENT OR GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY IN THE UNITED STATES IS A "CORPORATION" IN THIS SENSE OF THE WORD (in the way that amateur legal theorists mean it) and the courts have repeatedly said so.


    OTHER TYPES OF CORPORATIONS UNDER THE REAL LAW

    Remember, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe that every CORPORATION in the whole world is a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation (the "bad" kind of corporation). But, this is not so.

    Unknown to Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists, there are DOZENS and DOZENS of different types of corporations. But, ONLY ONE (1) TYPE of corporation is a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which makes "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS" (the "bad" kind of corporation). Unknown to Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists, there are COUNTLESS OTHER TYPES of NON-PROFIT corporations WHICH ARE ACTUALLY OWNED BY THE PUBLIC, OPERATED BY THE PUBLIC AND SERVE THE PUBLIC (not "private stockholders") FOR THE PUBLIC GOOD.

    For example, there are PUBLICLY-OWNED, NON-PROFIT corporations (like some publicly-owned hospitals, schools and universities and some electrical and water utilities, NONE of which have "stockholders" and NONE of which make "profits"). There are also PUBLICLY-OWNED, NON-PROFIT MUNICIPAL corporations (like cities and towns, NONE of which have "stockholders" and NONE of which make "profits" and ALL of which are controlled entirely by people ELECTED by "We the People" TO CONTROL THEM). There are countless other different types of PUBLICLY-OWNED, NON-PROFIT corporations which serve the public (not "private stockholders"). But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this. Click on the links below.

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nonprofit_corporation

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Public_corporation

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State-owned_enterprise

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Municipal_corporation

    [https://thestartupgarage.com/corpora...ciations-llcs/

    https://thestartupgarage.com/corpora...fit-religious/


    ABOUT "FEDERAL CORPORATIONS"

    Our federal government has even structured seventeen of our federal government agencies as PUBLICLY-OWNED, NON-PROFIT "federal corporations" (NO STOCKHOLDERS, NO PROFITS, etc.). In general, all of the federal agencies that are structured this way have two things in common, they all have their own customers (or their own source of revenue) and none of them receive any money from Congress.

    Three well-known examples of such federal agencies are the United States Postal Service (The Post Office-U.S. Mail), AMTRAK (a publicly-owned, non-profit railroad) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (a publicly-owned, non-profit ELECTRICAL POWER utility). You will note that ALL THREE of these PUBLICLY-OWNED, NON-PROFIT "federal corporations" have their own customers and none of them receive any money from Congress.

    There are THREE MAIN REASONS why the federal government structured these federal agencies as PUBLICLY-OWNED, NON-PROFIT "federal corporations": 1). To force each such federal agency to work within their own budgets BY USING THEIR OWN REVENUES (received from their own customers/sources) instead of receiving money from Congress; 2). To relieve taxpayers of the burden of paying for governmental services that they might not even use (not everyone uses snail mail, rides trains or lives in the "Tennessee Valley"); and 3). To ensure that each such federal agency provide the highest possible quality of service at the lowest possible cost to the taxpayer in order to avoid their own failure and collapse (which, due to this organizational structure, would have no adverse effect on the rest of the federal government or on the taxpayer anyway). IT'S ALL ABOUT ACCOUNTABILITY AND FAIRNESS TO THE TAXPAYER. For more on this subject, click here. https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/RL30365.pdf

    FACT: All corporations are "ARTIFICIAL" persons (NON-human beings).

    FACT: No "NATURAL" person (no human being) can be a corporation.


    THE SECRET CORPORATION MYTH:

    FACT: Contrary to what Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe, there is no such thing as a "SECRET CORPORATION" of any kind (regardless of what type they are or whom they serve). All corporations (no matter what type they are or whom they serve) ARE PUBLICLY "INCORPORATED" IN A STATE OR PUBLICLY "CREATED" BY STATUTE OR ORDINANCE. All "PRIVATE" corporations ARE PUBLICLY "INCORPORATED" IN A STATE AND ARE PUBLICLY "REGISTERED" IN EVERY STATE WHERE THEY DO BUSINESS. So if they exist, THERE WILL BE A "PUBLIC RECORD" OF THEM, their "articles of incorporation", their creation date, their purpose, their function, their powers, their scope, their addresses, their officers (and often their directors), their trade names, their fictitious names, their trademarks, their service marks, their annual reports, their registered agent for service of civil lawsuits and so forth, ALL OF WHICH ARE AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC ONLINE. Further, all "PUBLIC" corporations (no stockholders and no profits) ARE PUBLICLY "CREATED" BY A PUBLIC STATE OR FEDERAL "STATUTE" OR BY A PUBLIC COUNTY OR CITY "ORDINANCE". So, if they exist, THERE WILL BE A "PUBLIC RECORD" OF THEM, their creation date, their purpose, their function, their powers, their scope and so forth, ALL OF WHICH ARE AVAILABLE TO THE PUBLIC ONLINE).

    Translation: ALL CORPORATIONS (regardless of what type they are or whom they serve) ARE PUBLICLY "CREATED" BY A DOCUMENT THAT IS ACTUALLY FILED IN THE "PUBLIC RECORD" FOR ALL THE WORLD TO SEE! There are NO EXCEPTIONS! NONE! Whether an entity is a "corporation" IS "ALWAYS" A MATTER OF "PUBLIC RECORD"! So, there is NO "GUESS WORK" about whether an entity is a corporation or not. If an entity is not PUBLICLY "INCORPORATED" in a state or was not PUBLICLY "CREATED" by a PUBLIC statute or PUBLIC ordinance, THEN IT IS NOT A CORPORATION! It is that simple. There are NO EXCEPTIONS! NONE! This means that there is NOTHING "SECRET" OR "MYSTERIOUS" about the existence of either PUBLIC or PRIVATE corporations. Their documents are IN THE "PUBLIC RECORD" for all the world to see. But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    Translation: To find out if an entity is a corporation, the ONE and ONLY place to find the answer IS IN THE PUBLIC RECORD (not in Dun & Bradstreet, not on a list of entities with EIN numbers and not on amateur legal theory websites). All "PRIVATE" corporations can be found online at the STATE "SECRETARY OF THE STATE, DIVISION OF CORPORATIONS" or the foreign equivalent if a foreign "PRIVATE" corporation. All "PUBLIC" corporations can be found in STATE and FEDERAL STATUTES and in county or city ORDINANCES or the foreign equivalent if a foreign "PUBLIC" corporation. If an entity cannot be found in those places, IT IS NOT A CORPORATION. It is that simple. But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.


    TWO SOURCES OF CONFUSION IN AMATEUR LEGAL THEORY:

    Amateur legal theorists are PATHOLOGICALLY DESPERATE to discredit and delegitimize the FEDERAL government of “We the People”. So, if any FEDERAL statute contains the terms, "corporate" or "corporation" in reference to anything FEDERAL, then amateur legal theorists will use that FEDERAL statute in support of their false claim that the FEDERAL government is itself a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which makes "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS". Two such FEDERAL statutes cited by amateur legal theorists in support of this false claim are the "Act Of 1871" and "Title 28 U.S.C. (15)(a)".

    THE ACT OF 1871:
    The Act Of 1871 reads in pertinent part, "...[We hereby create] a government by the name of [the "CITY" of] THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA [not the ”United States Of America”] by which name it is hereby constituted a BODY CORPORATE [this term is a source of the confusion] for MUNICIPAL [means "CITY"] PURPOSES [not for other purposes]... [and this body is empowered to] exercise all... powers of a MUNICIPAL CORPORATION [this term is also a source of the confusion and actually means "CITY GOVERNMENT"] not inconsistent with [means "CONSISTENT WITH"] the Constitution and the laws of the United States." http://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes.../c41s3ch62.pdf.

    Thus, the Act of 1871 simply created a "CITY" GOVERNMENT for the "CITY" of Washington, D.C., (NOT FOR THE ENTIRE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT). But, amateur legal theorists are intellectually unable to tell the difference between the two (a "CITY" GOVERNMENT on one hand and the "ENTIRE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT" on the other hand). Remember, if any FEDERAL statute contains the terms, "corporate" or "corporation" in reference to anything FEDERAL, then amateur legal theorists will use that FEDERAL statute in support of their false claim that the FEDERAL government is itself a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which makes "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS".

    But, because the "CITY" of Washington, D.C. is the seat of the FEDERAL government and because they mistakenly believe that all corporations in the world are PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporations, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists falsely claim that the terms, "body corporate" and "municipal corporation" (contained in the Act Of 1871) prove that the "ENTIRE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT" (rather than merely the "CITY" GOVERNMENT of Washington, D.C.) IS ITSELF A PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which makes "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS. https://www.akupressllc.com/150121Cr...ourtDenver.pdf (at page ACTUALLY NUMBERED "3" in the 4th paragraph at about 50% through the text)
    But, this is not so.

    FACT: There is NOTHING about the Act of 1871 that has any affect whatsoever on the FEDERAL government itself. Instead, The Act of 1871 only relates to the "CITY" government of Washington, D.C. Likewise, NOTHING about the Act Of 1971 makes the FEDERAL government itself (or the "CITY" of Washington, D.C. for that matter) a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION which makes "PROFITS" for its private "STOCKHOLDERS". But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    TITLE 28 U.S.C. 3002(15)(a):
    Title 28 U.S.C. 3002 (15)(a) reads in pertinent part, "DEFINITIONS... As used in THIS chapter [ONLY, and not for any other purpose],... United States means- ... a federal corporation [this term is a source of the confusion]... ." Title 28 U.S.C. 3002 (15) (a) merely provides the definitions (only) SOLELY FOR THE PURPOSE OF A SINGLE FEDERAL CHAPTER (AND THOSE DEFINITIONS DO NOT APPLY TO ANY OTHER CHAPTER AND CANNOT BE USED IN CONNECTION WITH ANY OTHER PURPOSE). This is why the VERY FIRST WORDS of Title 28 U.S.C. § 3002 read, “As used in THIS chapter [and NOT other chapters or for other purposes]... ." https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/28/3002 (See the VERY FIRST WORDS at the TOP of this section.). The SINGLE CHAPTER for which Title 28 U.S.C. § 3002 provides definitions is the FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURE ACT (chapter 176).

    But remember, if any FEDERAL statute contains the terms, "corporate" or "corporation" in reference to anything FEDERAL, then amateur legal theorists will use that FEDERAL statute in support of their false claim that the United States is itself a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which makes "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS". So, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists falsely claim that Title 28 U.S.C. 3002(15)(a) proves that the United States is itself a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which makes "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS". But, this is not so.

    The SINGLE CHAPTER for which Title 28 U.S.C. 3002(15)(a) provides definitions (chapter 176) relates to the "PROCEDURE" ONLY that the "United States" must follow when collecting certain debts. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/28/3001. Title 28 U.S.C. § 3002 (15) (a) DOES NOT actually define the "United States" as a ”federal corporation”. Instead, it actually defines a “federal corporation” (like AMTRAK) as the “United States” SOLELY FOR PURPOSES OF THE FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURE ACT.

    APPLICATION: So, if AMTRAK (a "federal corporation") sought to collect on such a debt, it would have to follow the SAME "PROCEDURE" set forth in the Fair Debt Collection Procedure Act THAT ANY OTHER PART OF THE "UNITED STATES” GOVERNMENT WOULD HAVE TO FOLLOW TO COLLECT SUCH A DEBT. It is that simple. But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    FACT: This definition IN THE FEDERAL DEBT COLLECTION PROCEDURE ACT does not mean that the entire “United States” is itself a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation which generates "PROFITS" for its "PRIVATE STOCKHOLDERS". But, consider this. Even if the "United States" was such a "PRIVATE", "FOR-PROFIT" corporation, and it is not, ALL of the governmental decisions made by that alleged "corporation" WOULD STILL BE MADE BY PEOPLE THAT WE "ELECT" TO RUN IT. For more on this very subject, read comment 12 in this same thread above.


    THE ACTUAL REAL LAW ITSELF ON WHETHER GOVERNMENTS ARE "CORPORATIONS" FOR AMATEUR LEGAL THEORY PURPOSES:

    1). Thompson v. Scutt, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theories that the state and federal government are "CORPORATIONS"). In this case, the court wrote, "Petitioner [an amateur legal theorist] also contends that THE STATE OF MICHIGAN AND THE UNITED STATES ARE CORPORATIONS, and as such, can only "interface" with other artificial entities, not natural persons like Petitioner [a false claim that Rod Class also makes]. In support of his argument, Petitioner [an amateur legal theorist] cites the Federal Debt Collection Procedures Act (FDCPA), 28 U.S.C. 3002 et seq [discussed above], and the Michigan Constitution, Article VII, section 1, NEITHER OF WHICH SUPPORTS HIS CLAIM THAT THE STATE OF MICHIGAN AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ARE CORPORATIONS [read this phrase again]. Petitioner [an amateur legal theorist] contends that, AS CORPORATIONS, the State of Michigan and the federal government cannot "concern [themselves] with anything OTHER THAN CORPORATE, ARTIFICIAL ENTITIES AND INTANGIBLE ABSTRACTIONS [a false claim that Rod Class also makes].... .’' But, the court held otherwise and wrote, “SUCH REASONING IS DEVOID OF LEGAL SUPPORT [Translation: are amateur legal theories] and contrary to common sense." (at paragraph 9 at about 40% through the text of the case). The court continues at footnote 2 near the end of the case as follows, "The FDCPA [discussed above] DOES NOT STATE THAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS A CORPORATION [much less a private, for-profit corporation]. Article VII of the Michigan constitution merely indicates that 'each organized county shall be a BODY CORPORATE [not a private, for-profit corporation].'" (at footnote 2 near the end of the case).

    2). DuBose v. Kasich, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE PLAINTIFF'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including the amateur legal theory that the state and federal government are "CORPORATIONS"). In this case, an amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued various government officials. The court wrote, "Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] sets forth his own versions of various 'sovereign citizen' [amateur legal] theories. Such [amateur legal] theories involve the alleged CORPORATE STATUS OF OHIO AND THE UNITED STATES... ." But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "... [F]ederal courts have routinely recognized that such [amateur legal] theories are MERITLESS and WORTHY OF LITTLE DISCUSSION [read that phrase again]... . " (at the 13th paragraph, just above section "IV" at about 95% through the text).

    3). Florance v. Buchmeyer, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE PLAINTIFF'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the state and federal government are federal "CORPORATIONS".). In this case, an amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued various government agencies and officials. The court wrote, "Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] responds that the STATE OF TEXAS is not protected by immunity under the Eleventh Amendment because it is a 'FEDERAL CORPORATION'... ." (at section "D" at about 65% through the text of the case). Later in the text in section "k" the court held otherwise and wrote, "Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] cites 28 U.S.C. § 3002(15) [discussed above] in the paragraph pertaining to his claim against the USA... . To the extent that Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] relies on § 3002(15) [discussed above] to sue the USA, IT DOES NOT APPLY BECAUSE § 3002 [discussed above] IS SIMPLY A DEFINITIONS STATUTE IN THE CHAPTER THAT AUTHORIZES THE USA TO... [COLLECT CERTAIN DEBTS]." (in section "k" at about 85% through the text).

    4). U.S. v. Petersen, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006 (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION".). The court wrote, "... Defendant [an amateur legal theorist] contends that 'THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA IS A FEDERAL CORPORATION, and one that is 'located in the ["CITY" of the] District of Columbia'. ... [The Defendant] further claims that the 'United States Government [rather than merely the "CITY" government of Washington, D.C.] was officially [c]ommercialized in 1871,' apparently arguing that this entity's powers 'shall be limited to the ["CITY" limits of the] District of Columbia.' ... . BUT [THE] DEFENDANT'S RELIANCE ON 28 U.S.C. § 3002(15) [discussed above] IS MISPLACED [read that phrase again]. That statute is simply a definitional provision DEFINING the "United States" as, among other options, 'a federal corporation' SOLELY FOR PURPOSES OF THE CHAPTER WHICH IT IS PART... . The applicability of [this] Chapter... is confined to CIVIL actions [filed] by the United States [against debtors]... to recover a judgment on a debt... . This CRIMINAL action [this case] is not [such a] a CIVIL debt collection action [so that definition is inapplicable in this case]... . In addition, [THE] DEFENDANT'S RELIANCE ON THE... [Act Of 1871 discussed above], IS LIKEWISE MISPLACED [read that phrase again] as that statute simply 'created a ["CITY"] government by the name of the District of Columbia [not "The United States Of America"],' a municipal corporation [which means a "CITY" government] with ‘jurisdiction over all the territory within the [CITY] limits of the District.’... . The present CRIMINAL prosecution of [the] Defendant [in this case] has nothing to do with the powers that Congress delegated to the ["CITY" of the ] District [Of Columbia. So, THAT DEFINITION DOES NOT APPLY IN THIS CASE]." (at the 13th, 14th and 15th paragraphs at about 35% through the text).

    5). U.S. v. Wiggins, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION".). The court wrote, "Wiggins [an amateur legal theorist]... ERRONEOUSLY CITES 28 U.S.C. § 3002(15) [discussed above] to support his assertion that THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION... . [But, t]hat statute governs the collection of federal debt.... . Section 3002(15) [discussed above] merely provides that the term "United States," WHEN USED "IN THIS... [STATUTE]," refers to a federal corporation, agency, entity, or instrumentality of the United States [not a private, for-profit corporation]." (at footnote 18).

    6). Kitchens v. Becraft, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE PLAINTIFF’S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION".). In this case, an amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued a Texas state official]. The court wrote, "Next, Kitchens [an amateur legal theorist] contends that 'THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION' and thus has no sovereign authority." But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "[T]he Plaintiff's [Kitchen's] objections ARE WITHOUT MERIT [read that phrase again]." (at the 6th paragraph at about 50% through the case).

    7). U.S. v. Beavers, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANTS' AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including their amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION".). In this case, the court wrote, "The Defendants [both amateur legal theorists] assert that THE "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" IS A FEDERAL CORPORATION that went bankrupt in 1933 [a false claim that Rod Class also makes] and lacks jurisdiction to prosecute criminal matters... .' But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "THE COURT FINDS THE DEFENDANT'S [the amateur legal theorists'] ARGUMENTS TO BE MERITLESS [read this phrase again]." (at the 17th-18th paragraph at about 50% through the text). At footnote 9, the court continues, "As explained [above], the Defendants cite 28 U.S.C. § 3002 [discussed above] to support their claim that THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION. HOWEVER, A COMPLETE READING OF 28 U.S.C. § 3002 BELIES [means "REFUTES"] THIS INTERPRETATION." (at footnote 9).

    8). Kubicki v U.S., https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION".). In this case, a tax protester/amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued the United States. The court wrote, "Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] argues that Defendant [the United States] has no immunity [from his suit], BECAUSE THE UNITED STATES HAS IDENTIFIED ITSELF AS A FEDERAL CORPORATION for purposes of tax collection activity.' But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "To support this proposition, Plaintiff [the amateur legal theorist] cites 28 U.S.C. § 3002(15)[discussed above]. THIS SECTION, HOWEVER, DOES NOT DEFINE THE UNITED STATES AS A FEDERAL CORPORATION for purposes of tax collection. Instead, IT MERELY PROVIDES THE DEFINITION OF THE "UNITED STATES’ FOR PURPOSES OF THE [SAME] STATUTE [IN WHICH IT APPEARS] AS A ‘FEDERAL CORPORATION’ [not a private, for-profit corporation]... ." (at the 8th paragraph not including block-indented portions at about 60% through the text).

    9). U.S. v. Boyce, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE TAX PROTESTERS' AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including their amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION".). The court wrote, "The Boyces [both tax protesters and amateur legal theorists]... assert that the court's jurisdiction is limited to individuals residing within the ["CITY" limits of the] District of Columbia citing 28 U.S.C. § 3002(15) [discussed above], WHICH DEFINES THE "UNITED STATES" AS... A FEDERAL CORPORATION... . [T]hey contend the court's jurisdiction extends only to the section of territory occupied by 'THE ULTIMATE PARENT FEDERAL CORPORATION,' i.e. the ["CITY" of The] District of Columbia." But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "THIS ARGUMENT IS UNAVAILING [is an amateur legal theory]. Section 3002(15) [discussed above] defines 'United States ONLY for purposes of 28 U.S.C. § 3001...', which governs 'federal debt collection procedure'. IT DOES NOT DEFINE THE 'UNITED STATES' AS A FEDERAL CORPORATION FOR PURPOSES OF TAX LAWS [much less as a private for-profit corporation], NOR DOES IT CIRCUMSCRIBE [means "LIMIT"] THE COURT'S JURISDICTION. [citing] Kubicki v. United States [the case directly above], ... '[the subject statute]... DOES NOT DEFINE THE UNITED STATES AS A FEDERAL CORPORATION FOR PURPOSES OF TAX COLLECTION [mush less a PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT corporation].'" (at the 15th full paragraph at about 25% through the text).

    10). U.S. v. Smith, http://www.vawd.uscourts.gov/OPINION...-10MJ00061.PDF (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION". In this case, the court wrote, "... Smith [the Defendant/amateur legal theorist] stated: '... in no way, shape or form am I an employee of the Federal government or am I an employee of the FEDERAL CORPORATION under the United States Code Title 28, Section 28 Section 3002, Subsection 15, Section A [discussed above] where THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION AND IT'S A FOR PROFIT CORPORATION as spelled out there.'" (at the 1st paragraph on page 7 of this case as it appears in this link). But, the court held otherwise and called the Defendant's amateur legal theories, including this one, "OUTLANDISH" and actually required the Defendant to undergo an INPATIENT PSYCHIATRIC EXAMINATION (a psychiatric evaluation while a patient incarcerated in a mental institution). Note: Rod Class has been forced to undergo several such psychiatric examinations for similar reasons.

    11). Joiner v. Perry, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006 (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE PRISONER'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including the amateur legal theory that the United States is a CORPORATION). In this case, a prisoner/amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued a North Carolina state official. The court wrote, "He [the prisoner/amateur legal theorist] also testified that 'THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION' to which he holds no 'allegiance', and that therefore the United States may not tax him." (at footnote 3 at the very end of the case). But, the court held otherwise and called the prisoner’s arguments "PATENTLY FRIVOLOUS" and NOT ONLY THREW THE CASE OUT OF COURT, but actually FINED THE PRISONER for making such ridiculous claims.

    12). State v. Hartsoe, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...2&as_sdt=40006 (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION"). In this case, the court wrote, "Hartsoe's [the Defendant's] affidavit was based upon his belief that THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION, which created 'straw men,' fictitious persons separate from real individuals, for each man and woman in order TO CONTROL the people of the United States [something that Dynamo also falsely claims]. Hartsoe [the Defendant] refused to submit to the CORPORATE government and filed his affidavit denying his [own imaginary] 'straw man' or [imaginary] CORPORATE existence." But, the court ruled otherwise.

    13). Miles v. U.S., https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...2&as_sdt=40006 (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION"). In this case the Defendant filed what amounted to a Motion For Relief From Conviction. The court wrote, "The grounds [in the Defendant's motion] include... that THE UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION and does not have the power to prosecute individuals, and that citizens are not subject to statutory jurisdiction under the Constitution [a false claim that Rod Class also makes]." (at footnote 1). But, the court held otherwise and unceremoniously THREW THE CASE OUT OF COURT.

    14). U.S. v. Provost, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...2&as_sdt=40006 (RULING AGAINST ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a "CORPORATION"). In this case, the court wrote, "... Defendant [the tax protester] filed a request to answer [the complaint], claiming that he had 'a good faith belief that the UNITED STATES IS A CORPORATION and that there was no parity with the flesh and blood man.'" But, the court ruled otherwise, DENIED the tax protester's request to file a delinquent answer and UPHELD THE DEFAULT JUDGMENT AGAINST HIM.

    15). Maxwell v. Snow, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006 (RULING AGAINST ALL THE TAX PROTESTER'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, including his amateur legal theory that the United States is a CORPORATION). In this case, a tax protester unsuccessfully sued a U.S. Treasury official and claimed that, "Texas is not part of the United States, and that the United States itself is unconstitutional because it is not a republican form of government"[something we-R-one also falsely claims], that THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT IS A "CORPORATION", that "the federal government’s jurisdiction is limited to [within] the ["CITY" limits of the] District of Columbia and [to within the borders of] other federally owned lands". But, the court held otherwise and held that such amateur legal theories were "WITHOUT MERIT", "PATENTLY FRIVOLOUS" and "LIKEWISE FRIVOLOUS."

    THE BOTTOM LINE: Note that ALL amateur legal theories (ex: "all governments are corporations") are always EXACTLY BACKWARDS AND OPPOSITE to what the REAL law actually is. There are NO EXCEPTIONS! Amateur legal theories ARE NOT REAL. They are FAKE. They are LIES. Amateur legal theories and the REAL law are the EXACT OPPOSITES of one another. Amateur legal theories are an IMAGINARY ALTERNATIVE to the REAL law that is actually used by the REAL legal system and the ENTIRE REST OF THE WORLD. Amateur legal theories have a 100% FAILURE RATE in court BECAUSE THEY ARE FAKE. They are NOT INTENDED TO WORK and they DO NOT WORK! They never have. They never will. Their SOLE PURPOSE is to attempt to discredit and delegitimize our REPUBLICAN form of government, the ELECTED representatives of "We the People" and to incite hatred and violence against innocent Americans. Nothing more.


    FACT: Just in case you do not already know, all FUTURE DECISIONS on the subject of whether governments are corporations WILL FOLLOW THE DECISIONS SHOWN ABOVE (CALLED "PRECEDENT"). So, the law on this subject will always be the same as reflected in the cases above. https://definitions.uslegal.com/b/binding-precedent/. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precedent. https://dictionary.thelaw.com/binding-precedent/.


    BONUS LAW: The cases linked to above did not just rule against the amateur legal theory that "all governments are corporations", the cases linked to above ALSO RULED AGAINST EVERY OTHER AMATEUR LEGAL THEORY RAISED IN THOSE CASES. These additional rulings are shown below. (The cases below appear in the same order they appear above.).

    1). Thompson v. Scutt, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): claiming to be a "sovereign" and a "citizen/member of [the]... [his home state] Republic", claiming (under the UCC) to have "superior title and claim over the judgment against... [himself]", claiming that "the court’s use of... [a person's name] in capital letters... refers to a separate or fictitious entity, and is enforceable only against that entity", claiming that "the Michigan statutes under which... [he] was convicted do not apply to... [him] because he is 'sovereign' and not a 'person' within the meaning of those statutes", claiming that the "Michigan laws supporting... [his] conviction [for DUI and DWLS-3RD OFFENSE] violate his constitutional right to travel", claiming that "the state lacked jurisdiction because... [he] has a right to removal under the Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act [as if he was a foreign, sovereign, nation state] and the federal removal statute'' claiming that he "is being wrongfully imprisoned on behalf of another [imaginary] entity [also] called 'CHRISTOPHER BURNELL THOMPSON' [often called the split personality defense]", claiming that his "conviction [for DUI and DWLS-3rd OFFENSE] was the result of fraud and misconduct on the part of the state, the prosecution and defense counsel [as if they forced him to drive drunk—again]", claiming that the state and federal governments are "de facto governments".

    2). DuBose v. Kasich, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): The Plaintiff (an amateur legal theorist) raised, "the relationship between the yellow fringe on the United States flag and ADMIRALTY jurisdiction and the effect of capitalizing the letters of his name. Plaintiff [an amateur legal theorist] ultimately maintains that he does not have a contract with either Ohio or the United States and, therefore, does not have to follow government laws [as if that would make any difference]." In response, the court wrote, "... [F]ederal courts have routinely recognized that such [amateur legal] theories are MERITLESS and WORTHY OF LITTLE DISCUSSION [read that phrase again]. 'Other courts have noted the sovereign citizen theory has been CONSISTENTLY REJECTED...' . [and citing another case which] '... REJECT[ED] AS FRIVOLOUS Defendant's argument that he was a 'private natural man and real person' and therefore not subject to the laws of the United States [and citing another case which] 'REJECT[ED] [this] sovereign citizen argument as FRIVOLOUS and UNDESERVING OF 'EXTENDED ARGUMENT [and finally citing another case which] 'h[eld] that a plaintiff's 'yellow fringe flag' arguments were 'INDISPUTABLY MERITLESS' [meaning amateur legal theories]."

    3). Florance v. Buchmeyer, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): suing a judge despite that the judge cannot be sued under "absolute judicial immunity", filing a fraudulent lien against a judge as if the judge owed money to the filer of the lien, claiming that the eleventh amendment immunizes criminals from prosecution (despite that it actually prohibits suits against states in federal court), claiming that a government officer/official can be "personally liable" for official actions taken under "color of law", suing a prosecutor despite that the prosecutor cannot be sued "absolute prosecutorial immunity", suing a government official despite that the government official cannot be sued under "absolute [government] official immunity" and claiming that a county is a "commercial entity engaged in commerce".

    4). U.S. v. Petersen, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): claiming that the entire federal government (rather than merely the CITY of Washington, D.C.) has no jurisdiction outside the borders of the CITY of Washington, D.C., claiming that the Act of 1871 (which created a CITY government for Washington, D.C.) converted the ENTIRE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT (something entirely different) into a commercialized, PRIVATE, FOR-PROFIT CORPORATION, claiming that the United States is a "foreign state" inside the borders OF ITSELF, claiming that the 11th amendment (which actually prohibits lawsuits against STATES in FEDERAL court) immunizes all criminals from prosecution, claiming that the professional title, "esquire" (a servant of a knight in battle) is a title of "NOBILITY" (a HEREDITARY title for those BORN OF "NOBLE" BLOOD, like the "KING" or "QUEEN"), claiming that the use of the professional title, "esquire" converts American attorneys into "agents of a foreign government", claiming that the "bar association" (referring to the ABA) is a monopoly, claiming that certain federal statutes were never enacted into positive law and claiming that judges have a "financial interest" in their cases.

    5). U.S. v. Wiggins, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): claiming that the case is subject to "MARITIME & ADMIRALTY JURISDICTION" in a case that does not actually involve maritime or admiralty, not "consenting" to the law or to the court's jurisdiction (as if that would make any difference), refusing to "stand under" the court's questions, claiming that his name is "his government name" and not his real name, purporting to file a CIVIL "counterclaim" against the government in a CRIMINAL case (which is impossible), attempting to disqualify a judge for a "personal interest" in case and for practicing law, claiming the imaginary right to be represented by a non-lawyer and attempting to use an "attorney in fact" as a substitute for an "attorney at law".

    6). Kitchens v. Becraft, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): claiming that there is "no lawful money for the payment of debts" because of the "[imaginary] national bankruptcy of 1933" and because of the "abolition of the gold standard", claiming that there is a "secret state of war" that exists between THE 'FEDERAL UNITED STATES,' WHICH IS A 'FEDERAL CORPORATION', and the people of the several states, claiming that "Federal Reserve Notes are not legal tender", claiming to be a "secured creditor" in a case which has NO "CREDITORS" AT ALL ("secured" or otherwise) and which imaginary "creditor" has no collateral allegedly "securing" the imaginary debt, claiming that "the Supreme Court has determined that all codes, rules, and regulations are for government authorities only, and not [for] human beings in accordance with God's laws", claiming that "all codes, rules and regulations are unconstitutional and lack due process", claiming that "the supreme law of the land is the Constitution for the united States, and not the Constitution of the United States [pretending that there are two different Constitutions]", claiming that the only "lawful money of the Constitution for the united States is gold or silver coin of specific fineness and weight [a Constitutional provision actually applies ONLY TO THE STATES and not to the United States itself]", claiming that "the only lawful jurisdiction of a de jure common law court is under the American flag of peace, and not the Vice ADMIRALTY Court, military jurisdiction, which the Magistrate is treasonously imposing", claiming that "the only lawful jurisdiction is under common law, and not under vice ADMIRALTY, as signified by the U.S. battle flag with gold fringe and eagle on the flagpole currently displayed within the CORPORATE de facto court," claiming to have already "lawfully exercised his remedy" under Public Law 73-10 by "redeeming his birth certificate bond" and "captur[ing] his [imaginary] straw man", claiming "not [to be] a party or signatory to, nor being named in, any statute, code, law, or rule, nor having the provided power of attorney to any government agent or employee to enter him into such compacts” (as if that would make any difference), claiming to be exempt from all laws except those to which he voluntarily assents (as if individual "assent" is required) and claiming that a "military tribunal exercising ADMIRALTY jurisdiction, lacks jurisdiction over his claims, which jurisdiction may only be exercised by a constitutional common law court under the American flag of peace."

    7). U.S. v. Beavers, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): claiming that "CAPITAL LETTERS" refer only to CORPORATIONS and not to "flesh and blood persons", claiming that the court is just a division of THE UNITED STATES CORPORATION and therefore lacks jurisdiction, playing the "name game" as a defense ("split personality" and "corporate fiction" verses "flesh and blood" persons), claiming that the ”name game" can deprive the court of jurisdiction, doing the following in a futile effort to avoid the court's jurisdiction, denying citizenship, claiming sovereign citizenship, claiming foreign citizenship, claiming freeman status and claiming that the IRS is really a private, for-profit, Puerto Rican CORPORATION.

    8). Kubicki v U.S., https://scholar.google.com/scholar_c...n&as_sdt=40006. This case (also linked to above) ALSO RULED AGAINST ALL OF THE FOLLOWING AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES, all of which are also peddled by Rod Class (AND ALL OF WHICH FAILED HERE): putting property owned by the tax protesters into the names of other people in an effort to avoid paying taxes, claiming that IRS tax laws do not apply outside the borders of Washington, D.C. and other federal territories, claiming that "wages are not income" for purposes of U.S. income tax laws, claiming sovereign and foreign state immunities as a defense and denying citizenship in an effort to avoid the jurisdiction of the court.

    CASE 9-15 (ABOVE IN THE TOP LIST OF CASES) DID NOT MAKE ADDITIONAL RULINGS OF THE TYPE LISTED IN CASE 1-8 HERE.

    FACT: Just in case you do not already know, all FUTURE DECISIONS on these same amateur legal theories WILL FOLLOW THE DECISIONS SHOWN ABOVE (CALLED "PRECEDENT"). So, the law on these same subjects will always be the same as reflected in the cases above. https://definitions.uslegal.com/b/binding-precedent/. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precedent. https://dictionary.thelaw.com/binding-precedent/.

    I hope this helps.

    All The Best,

    Snoop
     
    Last edited: Oct 11, 2018
    chelloveck likes this.
  9. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    Brokor, Below is more REAL law on the subject of our discussion above.

    THE "SOVEREIGN CITIZEN" HOAX

    FIRST SEE THE HOAX HERE:
    Removing The Shackles: THE SOVEREIGN CITIZEN by: Judge Dale (contains 100% FAKE case law and a series of LIES written by Rodney DALE Class while pretending to "Judge DALE").

    THE AMATEUR MISTAKE:
    Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe that a "SOVEREIGN" is an INDIVIDUAL and that the enemy of a "SOVEREIGN" is the GOVERNMENT of "We the People". But, this is not so.

    THE TRUTH:
    The GOVERNMENT of "We the People" IS THE "SOVEREIGN". The INDIVIDUAL IS NOT "SOVEREIGN". The term, "SOVEREIGN" is a term that ONLY applies to GOVERNMENTS, not to INDIVIDUALS.

    THE ACTUAL REAL LAW ITSELF ON WHETHER INDIVIDUALS ARE "SOVEREIGN"

    1). Lozano v. Bank of America Loans, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=175996315291348583&q="is+not+a+sovereign"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. (REJECTING ALL OF THE PLAINTIFF'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES INCLUDING her amateur legal theory that she is "SOVEREIGN"). In this case, the plaintiff (an amateur legal theorist) sued a lender and claimed to be "SOVEREIGN". But, the court ruled otherwise and held, "First, SHE [the plaintiff] IS NOT A "SOVEREIGN". A SOVEREIGN IS THE GOVERNMENT, OR THE LEADER OF A GOVERNMENT [a Monarch]. SHE [the plaintiff] IS NIETHER [a government or a leader of a government]." TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    2). U.S. v. Crawford, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=15454740030846246018&q=+"U.S.+v.+Crawford"+"is+not+a+sovereign"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. (REJECTING ALL OF THE DEFENDANT'S AMATEUR LEGAL THEORIES INCLUDING his amateur legal theory that he is "SOVEREIGN"). In this case, the court wrote, "Defendant [an amateur legal theorist] asserts in his motion that HE IS A... SOVEREIGN, and as such is ENTITLED TO SOVEREIGN [GOVERNMENTAL] IMMUNITY from prosecution." But, the court ruled otherwise and held, "Defendant... IS NOT A SOVEREIGN [meaning a GOVERNMENT], BUT [IS] AN INDIVIDUAL. As with ANY INDIVIUAL criminal defendant, Crawford [the INDIVIDUAL defendant] is NOT ENTITLED TO SOVEREIGN [GOVERNMENTAL] IMMUNITY despite his claims to the contrary [because he is NOT a GOVERNMENT]... ." TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    3). Cooper v U.S., https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=1788441780084038901&q="United+States+v.+Cooper+Corporation"+++&hl=en&scisbd=2&as_sdt=40006 (HOLDING THAT ONLY THE UNTIED STATES AND THE INDIVIDUAL STATES ARE "SOVEREIGN"). In this case, the court held, "It is fundamental that THE UNITED STATES EXISTS AS A SOVEREIGN of delegated powers; DELEGATED TO IT BY THE "SOVEREIGNS" MAKING UP THE UNITED STATES, THE INDIVIDUAL STATES [not individual human beings]." (in the 3rd to last paragraph of this case). TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    4). Chisolm v. Georgia, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=1448810606414351612&q="states+are+sovereign"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006 (HOLDING THAT THE STATES AND THE UNITED STATES ARE SOVEREIGN). The court wrote, "EVERY STATE IN THE UNION in every instance where ITS SOVEREIGNTY has NOT been delegated to THE UNITED STATES, [IS]... COMPLETELY SOVEREIGN, AS THE UNITED STATES ARE [SOVEREIGN] IN RESPECT TO THE POWERS SURRENDERED [TO THEM BY THE STATES]. THE UNITED STATES ARE SOVEREIGN AS TO ALL POWERS OF GOVERNMENT ACTUALLY SURRENDERED [TO THEM BY THE STATES]: EACH STATE IN THE UNION IS SOVEREIGN AS TO ALL POWERS RESERVED. " (at the 14th paragraph at about 15% through the text). TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    SIDE NOTE: Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists mistakenly believe that the STATES are franchises or subsidiaries of the FEDERAL government. Rod Class Exposes State Governments are franchise branches of federal corporation posing as government of the American People.. But, this is exactly BACKWARDS and OPPOSITE to the truth. The FEDERAL government is a franchise and subsidiary of THE STATES. https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16374451903999508813&q="US+v.+Gutierrez"+15-3955&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. This case reads, "The powers of the general [FEDERAL] Government ARE MADE UP OF CONCESSIONS [GIFTS] FROM THE STATES." (at the 24th paragraph at about 35% through the text).

    5). Parker v. Brown, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=6941459492107844075&q="states+are+sovereign"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006 (HOLDING THAT STATES ARE SOVEREIGN). The court wrote, "Under the Constitution, THE STATES ARE SOVEREIGN, SAVE ONLY [means "EXCEPT"] AS CONGRESS MAY CONSTITUTIONALLY [under Article 3, Section 8] SUBTRACT FROM THEIR AUTHORITY [their SOVEREIGNTY]." (at the 16th paragraph at about 30% through the text). TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    6). Feldman v. Gardner, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=5056434096924289910&q="state+is+sovereign"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. (HOLDING THAT THE STATES ARE SOVEREIGN). The court wrote, "Inherent in our system of government is the concept of DUAL [meaning FEDERAL and STATE] SOVEREIGNTY; EACH STATE IS SOVEREIGN, except to the extent that ITS SOVEREIGNTY is curtailed by the [United States] Constitution or validly restricted by Congress [as set forth in Article 3, Section 8]." (at the 1st paragraph in "Section B" at about 25% through the text). TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    7). Dred Scott v. Sandford (rev'd other grounds) https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=3231372247892780026&q="Dred+Scott+v.+Sandford"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the Chief Justice of The United States Supreme Court held that the terms "SOVEREIGN" and "SOVEREIGNTY" refer ONLY to "We the People" COLLECTIVELY in the form of the GOVERNMENT and NOT TO INDIVIDUALS. He wrote, "The words 'people [a PLURAL term] of the United States' and 'citizens' [a PLURAL term] are synonymous terms, and mean the same thing. They both describe THE POLITICAL BODY [a SINGULAR term] who, according to our republican institutions, FORM THE SOVEREIGN [MEANING FORM THE GOVERNMENT], and who [COLLECTIVELY] hold the power and conduct the Government THROUGH THEIR [A PLURAL TERM] [ELECTED] REPRESENTATIVES [meaning the SOVEREIGNTY of "We the People" is exercised COLLECTIVELY through our ELECTED REPRESENTATIVES, not INDIVIDUALLY], They [a PLURAL term] are what we familiarly call the "SOVEREIGN PEOPLE [a PLURAL term]," and every [INDIVIDUAL] citizen is ONE of this [SOVEREIGN GROUP OF] PEOPLE [a PLURAL term], and a constituent member of this SOVEREIGNTY [the GOVERNMENT of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY]." (at the 24th paragraph at about 5% through the text). TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    8). Republic Of Panama v. BCCI Holdings, Inc. https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=12271616043948019184&q="not+a+sovereign"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "The rules of personal jurisdiction protect an INDIVIDUAL'S RIGHTS, NOT A SOVEREIGN'S RIGHTS [drawing a stark contrast between an INDIVIDUAL and a SOVEREIGN]." (in the 24th paragraph). Translation: An INDIVIDUAL has entirely DIFFERENT RIGHTS rights when compared to the rights of a SOVEREIGN. So, a SOVEREIGN cannot logically be an INDIVIDUAL.

    THE BOTTOM LINE: Note that ALL amateur legal theories (ex: "individuals, rather than governments, are sovereign") are always EXACTLY BACKWARDS AND OPPOSITE to what the REAL law actually is. There are NO EXCEPTIONS! Amateur legal theories ARE NOT REAL. They are FAKE. They are LIES. Amateur legal theories and the REAL law are the EXACT OPPOSITES of one another. Amateur legal theories are an IMAGINARY ALTERNATIVE to the REAL law that is actually used by the REAL legal system and the ENTIRE REST OF THE WORLD. Amateur legal theories have a 100% FAILURE RATE in court BECAUSE THEY ARE FAKE. They are NOT INTENDED TO WORK and they DO NOT WORK! They never have. They never will. Their SOLE PURPOSE is to attempt to discredit and delegitimize our REPUBLICAN form of government, the ELECTED representatives of "We the People" and intended to incite hatred and violence against innocent Americans. Nothing more.

    FACT: Just in case you do not already know, all FUTURE DECISIONS on the subject of whether individuals rather than governments are "sovereign" WILL FOLLOW THE DECISIONS SHOWN ABOVE (CALLED "PRECEDENT"). So, the law on this same subject will always be the same as reflected in the cases above. Binding Precedent Law and Legal Definition | USLegal, Inc.. Precedent - Wikipedia. https://dictionary.thelaw.com/binding-precedent/.

    (COMMENT CONTINUED)

    Thus, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists who oppose their own government ACTUALLY OPPOSE THE VERY "SOVEREIGN" AND THE VERY "SOVEREIGNTY" THAT THEY CLAIM TO SUPPORT. This means that Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists who oppose their own government ARE ACTUALLY THE ENEMIES of the "SOVEREIGN" and ACTUALLY THE ENEMIES of "SOVEREIGNTY", not their supporters. But, they do not know enough to even realize this. This is why many such amateur legal theorists (like Rod Class) find themselves on the United States TERRORIST WATCH LIST (because they actually oppose the "SOVEREIGN" and because they actually oppose "SOVEREIGNTY").

    This fundamental mistake (the mistaken belief that the INDIVIDUAL is "SOVEREIGN" and that the GOVERNMENT of "We the People" IS NOT "SOVEREIGN") reflects that the terms, "SOVEREIGN" and "SOVEREIGNTY" are perhaps the single most misused and misunderstood terms in all of amateur legal theory.

    BACKGROUND: Originally in politics, a "SOVEREIGN" was a SINGLE "MONARCH" (King or Queen) GOVERNMENTAL HEAD OF STATE who GOVERNED a nation state and all of the INDIVIDUALS in the nation state. Originally, the RIGHT of a SINGLE "MONARCH" GOVERNMENTAL HEAD OF STATE to GOVERN his/her own nation state and all of the INDIVIDUALS in its own nation state WITHOUT OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE was that MONARCH's right of "SOVEREIGNTY".

    Then and now, a "SOVEREIGN" meant/means a "GOVERNMENT" OF ITS OWN NATION STATE and all of the individuals in its own nation state. Then and now, "SOVEREIGNTY," meant/means that GOVERNMENT’S RIGHT TO GOVERN ITS OWN NATION STATE and all of the individuals in its own nation state WITHOUT OUTSIDE INTERFERENCE.

    THE STATES: But, here in the United States, we rejected the notion of a SINGLE "MONARCH" GOVERNMENTAL HEAD OF STATE to GOVERN the state and all of the INDIVIDUALS in the state. Here in our country, we adopted a republican form of government whereby "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) GOVERNED our own states and all of the INDIVIDUALS in our own state COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) through our ELECTED representatives of our own STATE.

    So, here in our country, THE STATE ITSELF, which consists of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) became "SOVEREIGN" (which still means THE GOVERNMENT OF A STATE). This means that in our country THE STATE ITSELF legally stands in the shoes of the SINGLE MONARCH of yesteryear. So, in our country, THE STATE ITSELF GOVERNS the STATE and all of the INDIVIDUALS in the state (instead of the SINGLE MONARCH of yesteryear). But, the right, power and authority of THE STATE ITSELF as a "SOVEREIGN" and the right, power and authority of the MONARCH of yesteryear as a "SOVEREIGN" ARE EXACTLY THE SAME. In our country, a "SOVEREIGN" IS STILL A "GOVERNMENT" OF A STATE, but a "SOVEREIGN" is no longer a SINGLE MONARCH.

    DEFINITION OF "SOVEREIGN":

    Sovereign Definition

    sovereign Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary

    THE BOTTOM LINE: Thus, In our country, the term, "SOVEREIGN" is a term THAT ONLY APPLIES TO A GOVERNMENT OF "WE THE PEOPLE" COLLECTIVELY (AS A WHOLE) AND NOT TO A SINGLE "CITIZEN", INDIVIDUAL OR PERSON INDIVIDUALLY. But, Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists do not know enough to even realize this.

    Here in the United States, the INDIVIDUAL did not become a "GOVERNMENT" OF A STATE. So, here in the United States, the INDIVIDUAL did not become a "SOVEREIGN" (a GOVERNMENT OF A STATE). As a result, here in the United States, the INDIVIDUAL does not GOVERN the STATE or any of the INDIVIDUALS in the state.

    THE UNITED STATES: The United States ITSELF is also a SOVEREIGN nation state consisting of a union of MEMBER SOVEREIGN STATES. So, here in the United States, THE STATES and the United States are both "SOVEREIGN" GOVERNMENTAL HEADS OF STATE (WITHIN THEIR RESPECTIVE JURISDICTIONS AS DIFFERENTIATED BY SUBJECT MATTER IN THE FEDERAL CONSTITUTION).

    This means that here in the United States, THE STATE AND THE UNITED STATES OCCUPY THE SAME EXACT LEGAL POSITION (AND HAVE THE SAME LEGAL RIGHT, POWER AND AUTHORITY TO GOVERN THE STATE AND ALL OF THE INDIVIDUALS IN THE STATE) AS DID THE SINGLE MONARCH OF YESTERYEAR, except that the powers of the United States (as distinguished from the individual STATES) are limited to those powers expressly delegated to it BY THE STATES in the United States Constitution (a tiny list of subjects), whereas the powers of the individual STATES (as distinguished from the United States) have no such limitation.

    Cooper v U.S., https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=1788441780084038901&q="United+States+v.+Cooper+Corporation"+++&hl=en&scisbd=2&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court held, "It is fundamental that THE UNITED STATES EXISTS AS A SOVEREIGN of delegated powers; delegated to it BY THE "SOVEREIGNS" MAKING UP THE UNITED STATES, THE INDIVIDUAL STATES [not individual human beings]." (in the 3rd TO LAST paragraph of this case).

    (COMMENT CONTINUED)

    Here in the United States, "We the People" exercise our "SOVEREIGNTY" COLLECTIVELY (NOT INDIVIDUALLY) through our VOTES. ---Thomas Jefferson (see below). Thus, "We (a PLURAL term) the People (also a PLURAL term)" exercise our "SOVEREIGNTY" (COLLECTIVELY, not INDIVIDUALLY) through our ELECTIONS.

    Jenkins v. Williamson-Butler, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=2459141824775540924&q="Jenkins+v.+Williamson-Butler"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. The court quoted Thomas Jefferson and wrote, "IT IS BY THEIR [a PLURAL term] VOTES [also a PLURAL term] THAT THE PEOPLE [also a PLURAL term] EXERCISE THEIR [also a PLURAL term] SOVEREIGNTY [AND NOT BY ANY OTHER MEANS]. ---Thomas Jefferson." (at the 12th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 60% through the text). TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "WE THE PEOPLE" COLLECTIVELY IN THE FORM OF "THE GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL ACTING OUTSIDE THE GOVERMENT CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    Note that the term "the governed' (below) IS A PLURAL TERM (not an INDIVIDUAL term).

    the definition of consent of the governed

    But, as INDIVIDUALS, none of us are “SOVEREIGN” (which still means the GOVERNMENT of a state) and as INDIVIDUALS, none of us can exercise any "SOVEREIGNTY" (which still means the right to GOVERN the state and all of the INDIVIDUALS in the state). In our country, we no longer recognize a SINGLE INDIVIDUAL (or “MONARCH”) as “SOVEREIGN”. In our country, no single INDIVIDUAL is the GOVERNMENT OF A STATE. This is why, in our country, no INDIVIDUAL can be "SOVEREIGN" (WHICH STILL MEANS A GOVERNMENT OF A STATE).

    Lozano v. Bank of America Loans, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=175996315291348583&q="is+not+a+sovereign"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. The court held, "First, she [the plaintiff] IS NOT A "SOVEREIGN". A SOVEREIGN IS THE GOVERNMENT, OR THE LEADER OF A GOVERNMENT [such as the Queen Of England]. She [the plaintiff] is neither [a government or a leader of a government]." TRANSLATION: UNDER U.S. LAW, ONLY "A GOVERNMENT" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN". UNDER U.S. LAW, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN EVER BE "SOVEREIGN" ("A GOVERNMENT").

    APPLICATION: This is why every amateur legal theorist who claims to be "SOVEREIGN" (a GOVERNMENT) ALWAYS LOSES on that issue with ALL law enforcement officers and with ALL courts. This is why ALL law enforcement officers and ALL courts ALWAYS treat such amateur legal theorists as the mere INDIVIDUALS that they really are. Amateur legal theorists who claim to be "SOVEREIGN" (a GOVERNMENT) to law enforcement officers and in court do nothing but demonstrate their IGNORANCE of the law and their IGNORANCE of history--- AND THEY ALWAYS LOSE!

    WHAT YOU CAN DO: If you do not like the laws, the ELECTED legislators, the ELECTED executive officers or the ELECTED judges or the ELECTED prosecutors, then do something about it. VOTE OR RUN FOR OFFICE. Pretending to be an INDIVIDUAL, GOVERNMENT OF A STATE (a “SOVEREIGN” MONARCH) has never, and will never work for you as a “defense” to the application of any law, the jurisdiction of any law enforcement officer or court or to the consequences any arrest, charge or conviction.

    CONCLUSION: IN OUR COUNTRY, NO INDIVIDUAL CAN BE A "SOVEREIGN CITIZEN" (OR OTHERWISE "SOVEREIGN"). HERE, AND ELSEWHERE, ONLY A GOVERNMENT CAN BE A "SOVEREIGN".

    THE ACTUAL REAL LAW ON WHETHER AN "INDIVIDUAL" CAN BE "SOVEREIGN" AND THEREFORE BE "IMMUNE" FROM PROSECUTION FOR VIOLATING STATUTES WRITTEN BY LAWMAKERS ELECTED BY "WE THE PEOPLE":

    1. U.S. v. Benabe,https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?ase=2011726581563609832&q="US+v.+Benabe"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, several defendants (all of whom were amateur legal theorists) falsely claimed to be "SOVEREIGN" and therefore claimed that they were not subject to the court's jurisdiction. But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "We [the courts] have REPEATEDLY REJECTED their [referring to amateur legal theorists'] theories of INDIVIDUAL [rather than collective] SOVEREIGNTY, immunity from prosecution, and their ilk." (citations omitted). The court then cited a number of other decisions with approval which. " ... REJECT[ED] the 'shop worn' argument that an [INDIVIDUAL] DEFENDANT IS A SOVEREIGN [a GOVERNMENT] and is beyond the jurisdiction bounds of the district court. (citation omitted)... [and another case] describing defendant's proposed 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN defense as having 'NO CONCEIVABLE VALIDITY IN AMERICAN LAW' (citation omitted)... [and another case] DISMISSING [SOVEREIGN CITIZEN] jurisdiction arguments as FRIVOULOUS... ." In the case at bar, the court held, "Regardless of an INDIVIDUAL'S claimed status of descent, be it as a 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN,' a 'secured-party creditor,' or a 'flesh-and-blood human being [rather than a corporate fiction],' THAT [INDIVIDUAL] PERSON IS NOT BEYOND THE JURISDICTION OF THE COURTS. These [amateur legal] theories SHOULD BE REJECTED summarily [means "without any delay"], however they are presented." (at paragraph 23 at about 50% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").

    2. Williams v, Georgia Dept. Of Corrections, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16993091562091245184&q="Williams+v.+Georgia"+"sovereign+citizen"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the court wrote, "[The Plaintiff's]... claims are brought under a 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' [amateur legal] theory. THIS IS A FRIVOLOUS [AMATEUR LEGAL] LEGAL THEORY THAT IS CONSISTENTLY REJECTED BY... [THE] COURTS [read this phrase again]." (citations omitted). The court went on to cite the holdings of other courts in support, "The ... [amateur legal] theories of `SOVEREIGN CITIZENS' are NOT ESTABLISHED LAW IN THIS COURT OR ANYWHERE IN THIS COUNTRY'S VALID LEGAL SYSTEM (citations omitted)... [and another decision] finding the SOVEREIGN CITIZEN argument to be to 'WHOLLY INSUBSTANTIAL AND FRIVOLOUS' (citation omitted)... [and another decision which] REJECT[ED] THE SOVEREIGN CITIZEN ARGUMENT as 'SHOP WORN' and FRIVOLOUS.'" In the case at bar, the court held, "The Court [referring to itself] therefore finds that [the Plaintiff's SOVEREIGN CITIZEN]... LEGAL THEORY is also 'INDISPUTABLY MERITLESS' [read this phrase again]." (at paragraph 8 in this case at about 90% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").

    3. Paul v. State Of New York, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=16820160598854753158&q="Paul+v.+State"+"13-cv-5047"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. This case reads, "It is clear [that the Plaintiff]... is an adherent of the 'SOVEREIGN CITIZENS' movement (citations omitted) which the Second Circuit has described as 'a loosely affiliated group who [mistakenly] believe that the state and federal governments [of "We the People"] lack constitutional legitimacy and therefore have no authority to regulate their behavior.'" (citations omitted)... . The court cited other cases with approval and continued, "So-called SOVEREIGN CITIZENS [mistakenly] believe that they are not subject to government authority [of "We the People"] and [UNSUCCESSFULLY] employ various tactics in an attempt to, among other things, avoid paying taxes, extinguish debts, and derail criminal proceedings. (citation omitted). The `SOVEREIGN CITIZEN MOVEMENT' is well documented. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has classified`SOVEREIGN CITIZENS' as domestic terror threats BECAUSE THEY ARE ANTI-GOVERNMENT [of "We the People"] EXTREMISTS... ." In the case at bar, the court wrote, "The gravamen [core of] of plaintiff's amended complaint is that as a SOVEREIGN CITIZEN, he is not subject to the jurisdiction of the ... courts... . [But] contrary to plaintiff's contentions, 'SOVEREIGN CITIZENS,' like ALL... [INDIVIDUALS in] the United States, ARE SUBJECT TO THE LAWS OF THE JURISDICTION IN WHICH THEY [FIND THEMSELVES]... ." (citations omitted). The court cited other decisions with approval which found "similar [SOVEREIGN CITIZEN] claims by Moorish Nationals... [to the effect] that they are not subject to... state laws, to be 'MERITLESS'. Plaintiff's purported [means "pretended"] status as a 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' 'does NOT enable him to violate state and federal laws [of "We the People"] without consequence.'" (citations omitted). Since... plaintiff's factual allegations in the amended complaint are CLEARLY BASELESS, and "[t]he conspiracy and legal revisionist [amateur legal] theories of 'SOVEREIGN CITIZENS' are NOT ESTABLISHED LAW IN THIS COURT OR ANYWHERE IN THIS COUNTRY'S VALID LEGAL SYSTEM,"... , plaintiff's amended complaint is both FACTUALLY AND LEGALLY FRIVOLOUS. Accordingly, the amended complaint is sua sponte [means "on the court's own motion"] DISMISSED AS FRIVOLOUS." (at paragraph 10 at about 75% through the text of the case.). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").

    4. Frye v. Barbour, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=1513597676206691319&q="Frye+v.+barbour"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, an amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued various government officials who he mistakenly blamed for his many criminal convictions and incarcerations. The court wrote, "[The]... Plaintiff [claims]... that this court lacks jurisdiction over him [because]... he is a SOVEREIGN CITIZEN, not subject to the laws of the United States of America... . However, the courts that have [already] considered such 'SOVEREIGN' CITIZEN' claims have found them to be FRIVOLOUS." The court cited other decisions is support which held, "[C]ourts ROUTINELY REJECT "SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' claims as FRIVOLOUS. (citation omitted). 'Regardless of an individual's claimed status of descent, be it as a `SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' , a `secured-party creditor,' or a `flesh-and-blood human being [rather than as a corporate fiction],' that person is not beyond the jurisdiction of the courts. These [amateur legal] theories SHOULD BE REJECTED summarily, however they are presented.' (citation omitted). 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN claims are WHOLLY FRIVOLOUS [read that phrase again].'" (at the 12th paragraph, not including block indented portions, at about 85% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    5. Dudley v. Eggert, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=14826836235989762164&q="Dudley+v.+Eggert"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, an amateur legal theorist unsuccessfully sued a government official for "seeking to incarcerate a SOVEREIGN and NATURAL FREE-MAN of the land [referring to himself] and extort [his] money without a contract threatening [his] liberty [as if a contract were necessary]." The court held that "[courts have]... "REPEATEDLY REJECTED... [such amateur legal] theories of INDIVIDUAL [rather than collective] SOVEREIGNTY, immunity from prosecution, and their ilk." (citation omitted). SOVEREIGN CITIZEN [amateur legal] theories are typically raised by defendants in criminal prosecutions or by tax protestors, but courts in this Circuit HAVE [ALSO] SUMMARILY REJECTED THEM in other contexts as well. (citation omitted). The court cited another case in support which "REJECT[ED] the plaintiff's SOVEREIGN CITIZEN challenge to state child support proceedings as "SHOP WORN" and "FRIVOLOUS." (at the 3rd to last paragraph at about 85% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    6. Hoglund v. Indiana, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=13511656089002122856&q=+"Hoglund+v.+indiana"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, a prisoner (and amateur legal theorist) unsuccessfully sued various state agencies and officials for imaginary misconduct that he mistakenly claimed resulted in his convictions. He alleged that government officials created laws "meant to control the people a as [fictional] legal entities, but not the SOVEREIGN man [referring to himself]... ." But, the court held otherwise and wrote, "The court of appeals has "REPEATEDLY REJECTED... [amateur legal] theories of INDIVIDUAL [rather than collective] SOVEREIGNTY, immunity from prosecution, and their ilk." (citation omitted). Even if an individual claims the status of "a `SOVEREIGN CITIZEN,' a `secured-party creditor,' or a `flesh-and-blood human being,' that person is not beyond the jurisdiction of the courts. These [amateur legal] theories SHOULD BE REJECTED summarily, however they are presented." (citation omitted). The court also cited another case in support which "describe[ed] defendant's 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' defense as having "NO CONCEIVABLE VALIDITY IN AMERICAN LAW.'" The court ruled, "Because all three of Plaintiff's claims rest on his [amateur legal] theories of SOVEREIGN CITIZENSHIP, this complaint must be DISMISSED AS FRIVOLOUS." (at the 3rd and 4th paragraph at about 85% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    7. U.S. v. Johnson, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=12617849308655616897&q=+"US+v.+Johnson"+09-CR-20049-DRH&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the Defendant was charged with filing a fraudulent lien against a federal employee. The Defendant filed a motion to dismiss the charges and claimed to be "a SOVEREIGN CITIZEN" and thus [claimed] the court ha[d] no jurisdiction over him." But the court held otherwise and wrote, "[T]he Seventh Circuit HAS READILY REJECTED such arguments alleging the SOVEREIGNTY OF [INDIVIDUAL] CITIZENS, finding such arguments to be FRIVOLOUS." (citation omitted). The court also cited other cases in support, one of which, "REJECT[ED] the 'SHOP WORN' argument that a defendant is a SOVEREIGN ["a GOVERNMENT"] and is beyond the jurisdiction bounds of the district court'... [and another case which] "DISMISS[ED] [a] lack of personal jurisdiction argument as FRIVOLOUS because [federal district] COURTS HAVE JURISDICTION OVER [ALL] DEFENDANTS [charged with]... VIOLATIONS OF FEDERAL LAW. A [FEDERAL] DISTRICT COURT HAS PERSONAL JURISDICTION OVER A DEFENDANT WHO 'IS WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES.' (citation omitted). Thus [A] DEFENDANT... WITHIN THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES [IS] ...SUBJECT TO THE LAWS OF THE UNITED STATES.' (citation omitted)... . Therefore, the Court REJECTS Defendant's argument that he is somehow a SOVEREIGN ["a GOVERNMENT"]... WHO IS NOT SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF THIS COURT." TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    8. U.S. v Schneider, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=6879104439699311440&q=+"US+v.+Schneider"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, the Defendant was convicted and sentenced to prison for five years for mailing a threatening letter to a judge (just like Rod Class routinely does). His sole defense to the charges was that "he is a FREE, SOVEREIGN CITIZEN and as such not subject to the jurisdiction of the federal courts." But, the court disagreed and wrote, "[T]hat defense has NO CONCEIVABLE VALIDITY IN AMERICAN LAW... ." (at the 2nd paragraph at about 40% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    9. Bey v. Indiana, https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=2895062927464381618&q=+"John+Jones+Bey"+"State+of+Indiana"+&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, an amateur legal theorist sued the state to stop it from taxing his real property. This case reads, "Bey says he's a 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' and therefore can't lawfully be taxed by Indiana or its subdivisions in the absence of a contract between them and him [as if a contract were necessary]." (citations omitted). But, the court wrote, "We have REPEATEDLY REJECTED such claims. (citations omitted). We do so [REJECT SUCH CLAIMS] in this case as well... ." (at the 2nd paragraph at about 35% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    10. Osoria v. Connecticut" https://scholar.google.com/scholar_case?case=8066947183234719437&q=+"Osorio++v.Connecticut"&hl=en&as_sdt=40006. In this case, an amateur legal theorist who was convicted for sexually molesting a child sued the state that convicted and imprisoned him. The court wrote, "... Plaintiff's complaint MUST BE DISMISSED as... FAILING TO STATE A PLAUSIBLE CLAIM... and AS "FRIVOLOUS"... because it is based on an "INDISPUTABLY MERITLESS LEGAL THEORY [referring to SOVEREIGN CITIZEN THEORY]. (citation omitted). Given the language of Plaintiff's Complaint — declaring himself a "real flesh and blood man," "a natural born, free, living, breathing, flesh and blood human with SENTIENT [a term also used DYNAMO] and more existence... upon the soil, and "the living man,"... Plaintiff appears to consider himself a 'SOVEREIGN CITIZEN'... . Numerous Circuits have ... REJECTED [the]... underlying premise [of SOVEREIGN CITIZENS to the effect] that federal courts lack jurisdiction over all 'LIVING MEN.'" (citations omitted). In support, the court cited a number of holdings from other cases as follows, "[T]o the extent that the plaintiff argues that he is a SOVEREIGN CITIZEN and not subject to... [state] laws, [such an argument is]`WHOLLY INSUBSTANTIAL AND FRIVOLOUS.' (citations omitted). Defendants claiming to be 'SOVEREIGN CITIZENS' assert that the federal government [of "We the People"] is illegitimate and insist that they are not subject to its jurisdiction. [But] [t]he [SOVEREIGN CITIZEN] defense has `NO CONCEIVABLE VALIDITY IN AMERICAN LAW.'... ." The court then wrote, "[Federal and state courts]... have SIMILARLY DISMISSED "SOVEREIGN CITIZEN" claims." Then, in citing those other courts, the court wrote, "...[A]rguments common to the "SOVEREIGN CITIZEN" movement[]... have been CONSISTENTLY REJECTED by federal courts." (citation omitted). The court then cited another case which held, "This Court adds its voice TO THE JUDICIAL CHORUS [means hundreds of other courts] REJECTING, AS LEGALLY UNSUPPORTABLE, SOVEREIGN-CITIZEN-BASED challenges to federal law." (citation omitted). The court cited another case which held, "The`SOVEREIGN CITIZEN' BELIEF SYSTEM has been described by other courts as `COMPLETELY WITHOUT MERIT, 'PATENTLY FRIVOLOUS', and HAVING 'NO CONCEIVABLE VALIDITY IN AMERICAN LAW. (citations omitted)... ." In the case at bar, the court wrote, "[t]he crux of Osorio's Complaint is that [courts]... have no 'jurisdiction over living men.' [He argues that]... because... SOVEREIGN [CITIZENS]... are not named in the codes, [they]... are not subject to the codes... . He explicitly asserts that he, the "Secured Party/Plaintiff is not a subject of, or to . . . the United States Constitution, its Ordinances, Statutes, Codes, or Regulations... . Because Plaintiff's claims are ALL PREMISED on this "SOVEREIGN CITIZEN"... theory, THEY [ALL] FAIL TO STATE A PLAUSIBLE CLAIM UPON WHICH RELIEF CAN BE GRANTED. (citation omitted). Accordingly, they [the Plaintiff's claims] are "FRIVOLOUS" and WILL BE DISMISSED... ." (at the 25th, 26th, and 27th paragraph beginning at about 75% through the text, and at the 2nd to LAST paragraph at about 95% through the text). TRANSLATION: Claiming to be "SOVEREIGN" ("a GOVERNMENT") WILL NOT BENEFIT YOU IN ANY WAY IN ANY TYPE OF CASE. This is because under U.S. law, no INDIVIDUAL is a GOVERNMENT (a "SOVEREIGN").



    THE BOTTOM LINE: Note that ALL amateur legal theories (ex: "individuals are sovereign and exempt from the law") are always EXACTLY BACKWARDS AND OPPOSITE to what the REAL law actually is. There are NO EXCEPTIONS! Amateur legal theories ARE NOT REAL. They are FAKE. They are LIES. Amateur legal theories and the REAL law are the EXACT OPPOSITES of one another. Amateur legal theories are an IMAGINARY ALTERNATIVE to the REAL law that is actually used by the REAL legal system and the ENTIRE REST OF THE WORLD. Amateur legal theories have a 100% FAILURE RATE in court BECAUSE THEY ARE FAKE. They are NOT INTENDED TO WORK and they DO NOT WORK! They never have. They never will. Their SOLE PURPOSE is to attempt to discredit and delegitimize our REPUBLICAN form of government, the ELECTED representatives of "We the People" and intended to incite hatred and violence against innocent Americans. Nothing more.



    FACT: Just in case you do not already know, all FUTURE DECISIONS on the subject of whether individuals are "sovereign" an exempt from the law WILL FOLLOW THE DECISIONS SHOWN ABOVE (CALLED "PRECEDENT"). So, the law on this same subject will always be the same as reflected in the cases above. https://definitions.uslegal.com/b/binding-precedent/. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precedent. https://dictionary.thelaw.com/binding-precedent/.



    FACT: There is no "us" and "them". "WE THE PEOPLE" ARE THE GOVERNMENT as explained below.



    Rod Class and other amateur legal theorists are unable to distinguish between PLURAL terms and SINGULAR terms. This inability results in much of their confusion about the law. In a republican form of government, such as ours, "WE" (a PLURAL term) the "PEOPLE" (also a PLURAL term) exercise our power and control over our own government COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY). But, as INDIVIDUALS, we exercise no such power or control. In a republican form of government, such as ours, the authority of a government depends on the COLLECTIVE (not INDIVIDUAL) "consent" of the "governed" (also a PLURAL term) COLLECTIVELY. But, as INDIVIDUALS, our "consent" to our government (contractual or otherwise), to its jurisdiction or to our laws IS NOT REQUIRED.



    7TH GRADE CIVICS: In a republican form of government such as ours, there are THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT. This prevents tyranny from any single branch of government. This legal principle is called the "SEPARATION OF POWERS DOCTRINE" which is found in the constitution of every state and in the constitution of the United States. Our three branches of government are the ELECTED LEGISLATIVE branch (the ELECTED statutory law makers), the ELECTED EXECUTIVE branch (the ELECTED law enforcement officials and their appointees) and the ELECTED JUDICIAL branch (the ELECTED judges, the ELECTED prosecutors and the ELECTED public defenders of the courts). Through the ELECTION process, "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) control ALL THREE BRANCHES of our own government. But, as INDIVIDUALS, we have no such control.



    In a republican form of government such as ours, if "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) do not like our state statutes, then "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) have the power and ability to ELECT DIFFERENT ELECTED state LEGISLATIVE REPRESENTATIVES to change or repeal the state statutes that we do not like. This ELECTION process works the same way with our nationally ELECTED LEGISLATORS (our SENATORS and CONGRESS MEN & WOMEN) as well as our locally ELECTED law/ordinance makers (county commissioners, city commissioners and city council members, etc.).



    In a republican form of government such as ours, if "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) do not like our ELECTED state law enforcement officials, their appointees or their practices, then "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) have the power and ability to ELECT DIFFERENT state ELECTED LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS to change the appointees and/or practices that we do not like (different Governor, different County Sheriffs, different City Police Chiefs, etc.). This ELECTION process works the same way with our nationally ELECTED law enforcement officer (our PRESIDENT ).



    In a republican form of government such as ours, if "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) do not like our ELECTED state judges, their practices or their rulings , then "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) have the power and ability to ELECT different ELECTED state JUDGES (different Supreme Court Justices, different appellate judges, different circuit judges, different county judges, different city judges, etc.). This ELECTION process works the same way with respect to our ELECTED state prosecutors (state attorneys and district attorneys) and our ELECTED state public defenders. NOTE: In the federal courts, judges are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate, both of which are ELECTED by "We the People". But, those ELECTED representatives of "We the People" (who do the nominating and confirming of our federal judges) can be removed from office by the ELECTION process as well. The ELECTED President also appoints the federal prosecutors. But, the President can be removed from office by the ELECTION process too. Some state jurisdictions even use a combination of BOTH systems whereby judges are first APPOINTED to the bench by ELECTED representatives of "We the People", but then must withstand a "retention" vote by "We the People" every single ELECTION cycle thereafter in order to remain on the bench.



    Regardless, EVERY single person in EVERY single branch of our STATE and FEDERAL government is put into office DIRECTLY or INDIRECTLY by "We the People" COLLECTIVELY through the ELECTION process.



    The fundamental mistake made by ALL AMATEUR LEGAL THEORISTS is their inability to comprehend the difference between the power of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (which is almost absolute) and the ABSENCE of power of the SINGLE INDIVIDUAL (which is almost nothing) when opposing the power of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (which is almost absolute). Every single amateur legal theory ever promoted reflects a basic misunderstanding of this simple legal principle, "THE MAJORITY RULES and the INDIVIDUAL DOES NOT." All amateur legal theorists get this simple legal principle exactly BACKWARDS (or OPPOSITE) to what the law really is (a common problem in amateur legal theory).



    It is the power of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) that empowers our ELECTED state LAW MAKERS to pass our state statutes and to make them binding upon all of the INDIVIDUALS in the state without the INDIVIDUAL'S "consent" (“contractual” or otherwise), etc.



    It is the power of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) that empowers our ELECTED state LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS to ticket, arrest and charge any INDIVIDUAL in the state who violates our state statutes without the INDIVIDUAL'S "consent" (“contractual” or otherwise), etc.



    It is the power of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) that empowers our ELECTED state JUDGES to preside over state court proceedings of such an INDIVIDUAL without that INDIVIDUAL’S "consent" (“contractual or otherwise”).



    This means that in a republican form of government such as ours, an INDIVIDUAL'S "consent” (“contractual” or otherwise) is NOT REQUIRED in such matters. Instead, in a republican form of government such as ours, "CONSENT” TO THE LAW COMES FROM “WE THE PEOPLE” COLLECTIVELY, AS A WHOLE, THROUGH THE ELECTION PROCESS, NOT FROM THE SINGLE INDIVIDUAL OUTSIDE THE ELECTION PROCESS.



    THROUGH THE ELECTION PROCESS, OUR THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT ALREADY HAVE THE COLLECTIVE “CONSENT” OF “WE THE PEOPLE” TO MAKE OUR LAW, TO ENFORCE OUR LAW AND TO PUNISH FOR VIOLATIONS OF OUR LAW.



    Under our federal and state constitutions, OUR THREE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT DO NOT ALSO NEED THE INDIVIDUAL “CONSENT” OF ANY INDIVIDUAL TO CARRY OUT THOSE FUNCTIONS.



    So, every single legal burden placed on the INDIVIDUAL in a republican form of government such as ours is a legal burden that is placed upon the INDIVIDUAL directly or indirectly by the majority of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY through the ELECTION process.



    In a republican form of government such as ours, the power of the INDIVIDUAL is limited to VOTING, RUNNING FOR OFFICE and to enforcing what few INDIVIDUAL rights and protections that "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (not INDIVIDUALLY) allow the INDIVIDUAL to have (such as those INDIVIDUAL rights and protections listed in the Bill Of Rights). In a republican form of government such as ours, these INDIVIDUAL rights and protections of the INDIVIDUAL are determined by the majority of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY (NOT BY THE INDIVIDUAL). This is why in a republican form of government, such as ours, ELECTIONS ARE SO IMPORTANT. In a republican form of government such as ours, ELECTIONS (which reflect the will of the majority of "We the People" COLLECTIVELY) DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY CONTROL EVERYTHING ABOUT OUR OWN GOVERNMENT. THESE ELECTIONS DETERMINE WHAT OUR LAWS ARE, WHO OUR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS ARE, WHO OUR JUDGES ARE, WHO OUR PROSECUTORS ARE, WHO OUR PUBLIC DEFENDERS ARE AND THEY DETERMINE WHAT ANY DESIRED CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS OR REPEALS MIGHT BE.



    FACT: THESE ELECTIONS BY "WE THE PEOPLE" MAKE OUR STATUTES VALID. THESE ELECTIONS BY "WE THE PEOPLE" MAKE OUR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS VALID. THESE ELECTIONS BY "WE THE PEOPLE" MAKE OUR COURTS VALID, OUR JUDGES VALID, OUR PROSECUTORS VALID AND OUR PUBLIC DEFENDERS VALID.



    FACT: In a republican form of government such as ours, every conviction of a single INDIVIDUAL involves the efforts of ALL THREE ELECTED BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT (the ELECTED LAW MAKERS who write the statutes, the ELECTED LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICIALS whose appointees make the arrests and who file the charges, the ELECTED JUDGES who preside over proceedings in court AND the ELECTED PROSECUTORS who attempt to convict the statutory violators in court). In a republican form of government such as ours, NO SINGLE ELECTED BRANCH OF GOVERNMENT CAN CONVICT AN INDIVIDUAL WITHOUT THE PARTICIPATION OF THE OTHER TWO ELECTED BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT.



    FACT: The people who oppose, defy and seek the overthrow our ELECTED government, our ELECTED legislatures, our ELECTED executive (law enforcement) officials, our ELECTED judges, our ELECTED prosecutors and our ELECTED public defenders ACTUALLY OPPOSE, DEFY AND SEEK THE OVERTHROW OF OUR REPUBLICAN FORM OF GOVERNMENT ITSELF and in so doing, SEEK TO OVERTHROW THE WILL OF THE MAJORITY OF "WE THE PEOPLE" OURSELVES. This desire to overthrow our ELECTED republican form of government and the will of the majority of "We the People " COLLECTIVELY, along with his long history of PSYCHIATRIC PROBLEMS and his MULTIPLE weapons-related FELONIES are the reasons that Rod Class, has been placed on the United States "TERRORIST WATCH LIST".
     
    Last edited: Oct 11, 2018
    DKR and chelloveck like this.
  10. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    THE HOAXES OF DEBORAH TAVARES

    Rod Class' partner in legal hoaxes is Deborah Tavares.

    Deborah Tavares supports her claims with documents.

    But, there are things about these documents that you should know.

    Deborah Tavares FORGES these documents herself. Other times, she
    ALTERS real documents to make them fit her claims. Still other times,
    she LIES about what the documents actually say. Finally, she PASSES
    OFF documents of known POLITICAL FICTION as "REAL" governmental or
    organizational documents.

    See proof here.
    https://www.waccobb.net/forums/showthread.php?130336-The-hoaxes-of-deborah-tavares-
    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/showthread.php?105568-The-Hoaxes-of-Deborah-Tavares
    http://www.oom2.com/t53764-a-summary-of-hoaxes-by-deborah-tavares-by-snoop4truth

    I thought that you should know.

    All The Best,
     
    chelloveck likes this.
  11. Ganado

    Ganado Monkey+++

    did you read any of that long ass posted you copied and pasted?
    what a bunch of nonsense. YOu can drive without a license in your own private vehicle as long as you are not conducting 'commerce' the problem is you have to educate anyone who pulls you over and go to court if they don't understand the law. Not worth the effort IMO
     
  12. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    THE CARL MILLER HOAX (includes "No Driver's License Required"):
    Temporary Printing Window


    VIDEOS OF CARL MILLER ENGAGED IN THE HOAX:










    Re-Empowerment of the States Amendment
    Humor: Carl Miller on Dollars, 1995

    DOCUMENT REFLECTING THE HOAX:

    http://www.myprivateaudio.com/carltext.pdf (This document was compiled by J.R. Butler of BeatTheCourt.com and is a transcript of the teachings of Carl Miller from his YouTube.com videos. This document amounts to a "check list" of every legal mistake that amateur legal theorists make about the law, ALL OF WHICH ARE PROVEN FAILURES IN COURT.).

    THE HOAX:
    Carl Miller claims to be a "constitutional scholar" who "delights in tying legal prosecutors in knots, often winning the praise and respect from judges" in the process. Miller also claims to be a "highly decorated hero of the Vietnam War" whose unit was the subject of "the famous movie, 'Apocalypse Now' and the best selling book, 'Apache Sunrise'." Further, Miller also claims to have been "inducted into the top secret project, ''Blue Book" and claims to have served under a famous General in "Operation 'Eagle Snatch'." But most importantly, Miller claims to have "studied law for 25 years" and claims to have "a win-loss rate of over 90%" in court". But, none of these claims are so.

    THE TRUTH:
    Carl Miller's real name is Richard John Champion. "Carl Miller" is an alias which Champion uses to avoid arrest and to prevent his followers from ever learning the truth about him. Champion is actually a MULTI-CONVICTED, WEAPONS-RELATED FELON, a CAREER CRIMINAL and a THREE-TIME HABITUAL OFFENDER. Champion HAS BEEN REPEATEDLY DIAGNOSED WITH A SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS and was TWICE INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY (a mental institution). ypsilanti abandoned hospital - Google Search.

    Champion is not a "highly decorated [war] hero". Instead, CHAMPION WAS ACTUALLY "SEPARATED" FROM THE ARMY BECAUSE HE WAS DIAGNOSED AS WITH A SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS AND DEEMED UNFIT TO EVEN SERVE. (Some "highly decorated [war] hero"). (Champion's act of claiming to be a "highly decorated [war] hero" is itself a federal offense. Stolen Valor Act of 2005 - Wikipedia.). Further, there is no record of a project "Blue Book" or an "Operation Eagle Snatch" in relation to the Vietnam War. (The REAL Project "Blue Book" actually relates UFOs. Project Blue Book - Wikipedia. And, "Operation Eagle Snatch" is actually a game played with G.I. Joe action figures. https://www.nusgram.com/tag/gijoe118scale. BE SURE TO SCROLL DOWN).

    Most importantly, Champion knows nothing of the constitution or the law and, therefore, HAS A 100% FAILURE RATE IN COURT WHEN REPRESENTING HIMSELF. (Some "constitutional scholar" who ties "prosecutors in knots" and who wins "praise and respect from judges".).

    ABOUT CARL MILLER:
    Carl Miller's real name is "Richard John Champion". The name, "Carl Miller" is his alias, as is "Carl Miller Jackson" and "Carl Michael Jackson", all of which he uses to avoid arrest and to prevent his followers from ever learning the truth about him.

    Champion was born on 08-01-1947 in Boulder, Colorado. He is the oldest of seven Champion siblings, including Mary Ann, Thomas, Christopher, John, William and Paul Francis. In 1958, Champion's father passed away when Champion was approximately 11 years old. From 08-01-1962 until 01-15-1962, Champion was involuntarily-hospitalized in Ypsilanti, Michigan for a severe mental illness. That institution has since closed. At that time, Champion was approximately 14 years old. Champion was issued his Social Security card in 1963 in Michigan when he was approximately 15 years old. (Social Security number withheld.). As of 10-07-1969, when Champion was 22 years old, he had never been married. On the same date, military doctors diagnosed Champion with a "behavioral disorder" which they did not regard as severe enough to disqualify him from military service (a decision they would later reverse). It is unclear whether Champion was drafted or joined, but he served in the Army from late in 1969 to 1972 and re-entered the service in 1976. A year later, on 05-24-1977, doctors at the Tripler Army Military Medical Center diagnosed Champion with a SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS "manifested by underlying hostility, anger, righteousness, rigidity and precipitating stress." On that same date, military doctors "highly advised" that Champion "be separated from the service" and he was. (Some "highly decorated [war] hero".).

    At some point between 10-07-1969 and the end of 1973, Champion was married. During 1973, Champion's wife gave birth to a daughter, Sarah A. Champion. In 1975, Champion and his wife were legally divorced. Champion was then approximately 25 years old. Five years later in 1980, when Champion was approximately 33 years old, Champion began a life of crime that continues to this very day. See proof below.

    During 1990, Champion was employed by The Chrysler Corporation for 10 months. Champion was then approximately 43 years old. At some point thereafter, Champion was also employed by Modern Engineering Company. Both jobs were located in southeastern Michigan.

    At some point, Champion lost touch with his daughter, Sarah. As an young adult, Sarah spent a considerable amount of time and money trying to locate her estranged father. By 10-31-1997 when she was 24 years old, Sarah had actually hired a private investigative firm in Melbourne, Florida (likely where she lived) to locate her estranged father to no avail (likely because Champion was then using the alias, "Carl Miller"). Sarah had also written to the Veteran's Center in Grand Rapids, Michigan seeking his whereabouts to no avail (again likely because Champion was then using the alias "Carl Miller").

    By 10-31-1997, Champion was 50 years old and effectively homeless. He often used a Post Office Box in the City Of Warren, Wacomb County, Michigan to receive mail and occasionally stayed with his brother, Paul, in Detroit, Michigan. (Address withheld.). But, Champion spent much of the time living in a "Scottie-type camper trailer" which he pulled behind his 20-year-old Chevy Suburban and which he parked overnight on rural properties owned by members of a "militia" group with whom he shared anti-government views and an interest in exotic firearms and weapons. (Address withheld.).

    Champion is currently 72 years old and 5' 9" or 5' 10" tall. His weigh fluctuates between 204 and 230 pounds. Champion lives in (or recently lived in) the City Of Warren, Macomb County, Michigan in area codes 48089-4781, 48091-2043 and 48042-4039. (Addresses withheld.).

    CHAMPION'S CIVIL AND CRIMINAL HISTORY AND HIS ALLEGED 92% WIN-LOSS RATE:
    (1). 11-17-1980. Macomb Co. Case no. 1980-001432-FY. Champion was arrested and charged with CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS, consisting of a handgun, a knife and "karate sticks" (a FELONY). Champion asked to represent himself. Before ruling on that question, the judge sought to determine whether Champion was even legally competent to make the decision to represent himself. So, the judge ordered Champion to undergo a psychiatric examination. Champion apparently failed the examination, because the court nevertheless appointed an attorney to represent Champion and that attorney actually won the case at trial (likely on the grounds that Champion, being mentally ill, did not have the necessary "intent" to commit the crime). Note that Champion can in no way take credit for the victory of his court-appointed attorney (with whom Champion fought tooth and nail). On 06-30-1982, the case was closed.

    (2). 04-03-1983. Macomb Co. Case no. 1983-000384-AR. This case is truly hard to believe. Despite that his court-appointed attorney "WON" the case for him at the trial court (the case directly above in #1), Champion was extremely dissatisfied and actually appealed his own acquittal and sought the reversal of his own attorney's "VICTORY" in that case (likely because his attorney used Champion's mental illness as a defense or because the attorney did not use amateur legal theories in winning the case, such as "strawman", "flesh and blood", "split personality", no "consent to jurisdiction", "capital letters", "admiralty", imaginary constitutional violations, etc.). On 9-27-1984, the appellate court dismissed Champion's appeal and remanded the "case" back to the trial court (threw it out of the appellate court). After this remand, nothing else occurred in the "case". The very fact that Champion would actually appeal his own acquittal and actually seek the reversal of a case that his own court-appointed attorney had already WON for him reflects that Champion was truly mentally ill indeed. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (3). 08-04-1993. Federal Bureau Of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Investigation No. 33612-93-3033-U. Federal authorities found Champion's Ford "Step Van" abandoned. When they searched the vehicle, they found : (1) a Ruger, Model 10-22, .22 caliber Carbine military rifle with scope and silencer; (2) a U.S. Carbine M-1, .30 caliber military rifle; (3) EIGHT (8) "Pine Cone" HAND GRENADES; and (4) TWO (2) M-80 Explosive Devices. As a result, the ATF Detroit Office (not the federal prosecutor's office) recommended that a federal warrant be issued for Champion's arrest. NOT YET A CASE. .

    (4). 08-17-1993 (later re-filed on 12-20-1994). US v. Champion. Warrant no. 2:1993-mi-80834. Pursuant to the foregoing federal arrest warrant (#3 above), Champion was arrested for POSSESSION OF AN UNREGISTERED MACHINE GUN, POSSESSION OF A SILENCER and POSSESSION OF AN EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. NOT YET A CASE.

    (5). 9-15-1994. Federal District Court For The Eastern District Of Michigan. In this case, Champion hired a lawyer and sued Burger King for a personal injury (ex: "slip-n-fall", "food poisoning", etc.). Champion's lawyer filed the case in federal court because of "diversity of citizenship" between Champion and Burger King (meaning that each party was a resident of a different state). But, on 11-01-1994, the federal judge remanded the case to state court (likely because there was no real "diversity of citizenship" between Champion and Burger King or because the amount in controversy did not meet the federal minimum requirements for federal "diversity" jurisdiction). The case was not litigated further and the state court judge "terminated" it on 10-26-1994. A TOTAL LOSS

    (6). 11-20-1994. Fraser Police Department. Incident Report Nos. 409-8982-94. 949210. 9011-201994. The Fraser Police arrested Champion and charged him with FIVE (5) COUNTS OF CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS IN A MOTOR VEHICLE. At the time of his arrest, Fraser Police found handguns in Champion's car and one additional "COCKED, LOADED HANDGUN" WHICH CHAMPION HAD BEEN CARRYING AND CONCEALING "IN HIS CROTCH AREA". Police also found five (5) handcuff keys on Champion (meaning that elsewhere Champion possessed FIVE (5) HANDCUFFS, presumably for his PRISONERS or HOSTAGES). NOT YET A CASE.

    (7). 12-08-1994. Macomb Co. Case no. 1994-002866-FH. Champion was charged with FIVE counts of CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS IN A MOTOR VEHICLE (four (4) firearms and one switchblade). Champion asked to represent himself. So, the court ordered Champion to undergo a psychiatric examination to determine whether he was competent enough to make the decision to represent himself. The psychiatrist determined Champion was at least competent enough to make the decision to represent himself (not competent enough to actually represent himself). So, the court allowed Champion to represent himself. On 12-06-1995, WHILE CHAMPION WAS REPRESENTING HIMSELF, A JURY FOUND CHAMPION "GUILTY" ON ALL FIVE COUNTS, A TOTAL LOSS. FOUR OF WHICH WERE FELONIES. On 01-10-1996, the court sentenced Champion to FIVE YEARS PROBATION, conditioned on him NOT POSSESSING WEAPONS DURING THAT ENTIRE PERIOD and paying the costs of his probation. A TOTAL LOSS.

    Unfortunately by 12-26-1997, Champion had violated his probation (failure to pay) and the judge issued a bench warrant and had him arrested. But, then Champion paid what he owed and was released from jail. By 06-08-1999, Champion had again violated his probation (failure to pay) and again the judge issued a bench warrant and had him arrested. But again, Champion paid what he owed and was again released from jail. On 05-16-2005, Champion was arrested again. But this time, Champion was arrested for POSSESSION OF WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON. Apparently, due to Champion's mental illness, the court appointed an attorney to represent him in the POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AS A CONVICTED FELON portion of the case. But, after discussing defense strategy with Champion, the attorney moved to withdraw as Champion's attorney (likely because the attorney sought to use Champion's mental illness as a defense or because the attorney refused to use amateur legal theories in his defense, "strawman", "flesh and blood", "split personality", no "consent to jurisdiction", "capital letters", "admiralty", imaginary constitutional violations, etc.). The court granted the attorney's motion to withdraw. On 07-07-2005, WHILE REPRESENTING HIMSELF, CHAMPION ACTUALLY PLEAD GUILTY to POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AS A CONVICTED FELON and WAS AGAIN SENTENCED TO FIVE [5] MORE YEARS PROBATION CONDITIONED ON HIM NOT POSSESSING ANY WEAPONS FOR THAT ENTIRE PERIOD. A TOTAL LOSS. Note that despite that VIOLATIONS OF PROBATION and POSSESSION OF WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON are new and separate crimes, all three of these ADDITIONAL VIOLATIONS are FILED TOGETHER IN THIS SAME CASE. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (8). 12-15-1995. US v. Champion. Case no. 2:1993-cr-80834. The underlying facts of this case are described in #2 and #3 above. The information in this paragraph was found on "Federal Criminal Docket Search", but this case does not appear on Pacer.gov (the official federal government docket/case website). No further documents were found from any source. This strongly suggests that federal prosecutors never actually filed an indictment or information against Champion in this case. Regardless, this case was closed on 12-15-1995, eight (8) years after Champion's arrest. This "closing" is likely a reference to an act by the ATF itself and not an act by the federal courts. No other information is available about this case from any source. NOT A CASE FILED IN ANY COURT.

    (9). 10-28-1997 Hillsdale Co. Hillsdale County issued an arrest warrant for Champion for OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE (a 5 year FELONY) and for RESISTING AND OBSTRUCTING AN OFFICER (a 2 year Misdemeanor). NOT YET A CASE.

    BACKGROUND:
    Michigan State Police were searching for Paul David Darland, A FUGITIVE CHARGED WITH THE MURDER OF A FELLOW MILITIA MEMBER.
    Witness describes accused militia killer as "calm," "proud";
    Militia member sent to prison for conspiracy.
    Champion was a well-known associate of Darland who provided Darland with legal advice and legal assistance. But when police interviewed Champion about Darland, Champion denied knowing Darland and denied knowing his whereabouts. (These denials resulted in the OBSTRUCTION charges immediately above in #9.). Regardless, thereafter, police secretly followed Champion in the hopes that he would unwittingly lead them to Darland. NOT YET A CASE.

    (10). 10-31-1997. On 10-31-1997, after several days of following Champion and after obtaining a search warrant, police raided the rural property of a militia member on whose property Champion lived in his "Scotty-Type Trailer". (Note that this was not Darland's property and Darland was not there at the time.). In Champion's trailer, police found: (1) a Chinese Norinco assault-type rifle, semi-automatic, 7.62 caliber; (2) an MKI long-branch, bolt-action rifle with scope, 7.62 caliber; (3) a Winchester 30-30 rifle, Ranger model; (4) a Mossberg Model 500A, 12 gauge shotgun, pump-action; (5) a Savage Arms, Model 67-E, 410 gauge, single-action shotgun with camouflaged fabric case; (6) a Dana Model 45 pellet rifle, caliber 5.05/20; (7) a Springfield 12 gauge double-barrel with sawed-off barrels and stock; (8) a Chinese made black nylon stock rifle, unknown manufacturer; (9) a Ruger .22 caliber rifle with scope, Model 10/22; (10) an Ejercito Argentine Colt .45 caliber handgun with black holster along with several large foot locker boxes of ammunition. NOT YET A CASE.

    (11). 12-26-1997. Wacomb Co. 199712261601. Warrant no. 942866FH. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. A Wacomb County judge issued an arrest warrant for Champion's arrest for CARRYING A CONCEALED WEAPON. NOT YET A CASE.

    (12). 12-26-1997. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. Pursuant to the warrant directly above (#11), the Mt. Clemons Police Department arrested Champion for CARRYING A CONCEALED WEAPON. For reasons that are not clear, this warrant and this arrest did not result in an actual case being filed in court. We have been unable to locate further records on this case. NOT YET A CASE.

    (13). 01-09-1998. As a result weapons found inside Champion's "Scotty-Type" trailer during the raid above (# 10 above) . St. Clair County recommended that a FELONY warrant be issued for Champion's arrest for POSSESSION OF FIREARMS BY A CONVICTED FELON (a 5 year FELONY), POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON (a 2 year FELONY) and COMMITTING A CRIME AS A HABITUAL OFFENDER - SECOND OFFENSE (a FELONY). NOT YET A CASE.

    (14). 01-26-1998. Pursuant to the warrant issued directly above (#13), St. Clair County arrested Champion for POSSESSION OF FIREARMS BY A CONVICTED FELON (a 5 year FELONY) and POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON (a 2 year FELONY). At the time of his arrest, Champion was in possession of (1) a Mossberg .12 gauge pump-action shotgun, Model 855; (2) a .30 caliber M-1 Carbine military rifle made by Inland manufacturing; (3) a Chinese bolt-action rifle; (4) an AKS 7.62 assault rifle manufactured by PolyTech; (5) a MAK90 Norinco Sporter 7.62 caliber rifle; (6) a .12 gauge New England single-shot shotgun, Pardner Model SB; (7) a Auto Ordinance Corporation, Model 1911A1 U.S. Army .45 caliber handgun, BSA; (8) S&W Model SW40C, BSA .40 caliber handgun; (9) a S7W Model 64-3m SSR, 6 shot handgun; (10) a Ruger .45 caliber, new Model Blackhawk handgun, BSR; (11) a S&W Model 14-3, 38 caliber, 6 shot handgun; (12) a Browning .22 caliber BSA rifle; and (13) a Remington Model 1100, .12 gauge automatic shotgun. NOT YET A CASE.

    (15). 03-04-1998. On 03-04-1998, the underlying case (#10, #13 above) was filed against Champion in the Circuit Court For St. Clair Co. Case no. 98-00753-FH. On 05-28-1999. Champion was CONVICTED IN A JURY TRIAL FOR POSSESSION OF FIREARMS BY A CONVICTED FELON (a 5 year FELONY) and POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON (a 2 year FELONY). Sentence unknown. I have been unable to locate more information on this case. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (16). 08-11-2004. Monroe Co. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. On 08-11-2004, Monroe Sheriff arrested Champion and charged him with SEVEN (7) COUNTS, five counts of CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS, one count of POSSESSING WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON and one count of POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON. Champion's lawyer negotiated a plea deal whereby Champion would plead "NO CONTEST" (treated as a "GUILTY" PLEA) TO THE FIRST TWO COUNTS on the condition that the state would drop all remaining charges INCLUDING THE CHARGE HABITUAL OFFENDER THIRD OFFENSE CHARGE. On 11-10-2004, CHAMPION PLEAD "NO CONTEST" TO POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AS A CONVICTED FELON (TREATED AS A "GUILTY" PLEA), WAS CONVICTED AND WAS SENTENCED TO JAIL. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (17). 11-15-2004. Macomb Co. 2004-182304-CA. While Champion was serving jail time for POSSESSION WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON (#16 directly above), the State Of Michigan DIAGNOSED CHAMPION WITH A MENTAL ILLNESS AND (ACCORDING TO CHAMPION) INSTITUTIONALIZED HIM IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY. Ypsilanti state hospital aadl.org - Google Search. But, there is some indication that this particular institution was closed in 1991. Regardless, Champion was institutionalized in some mental institution in southern Michigan. While there, Champion would also be on powerful medication which would render him "incoherent". Further while there, Champion would have no access to mail, telephones, fax machines, computers or any other means of communication. As a result, Champion was, at least temporarily, unable to manage his own financial and legal affairs. So, the State Of Michigan sought to have a conservator appointed, at least temporarily, to handle Champions financial and legal affairs for him. The judge agreed and on 01-20-2005 appointed a conservator to handle Champion's financial and legal affairs. A TOTAL LOSS. A year and a half later on 6-19-2006, because such was apparently a temporary measure or because Champion had been discharged from the Center For Forensic Psychiatry (# 23 below), the judge discharged the conservator and closed the case. Further details are not available.

    (18). 12-01-2004. Federal District Court For the Eastern District Of Michigan. Champion v. Meyer. 2:2004cv74693-VAR-MKM. WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS, Champion filed a frivolous, handwritten lawsuit in federal court against a government official who he blamed for his conviction and for the imaginary violations of his imaginary legal rights. Patients Ypsilanti state hospital aadl.org - Google Search.
    CHAMPION’S WRITINGS IN THIS CASE ARE A “MUST READ”! The judge dismissed the case (threw it out of court) on 12-21-2004, less than three weeks later. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (19). 12-06-2004. Washtenaw County Court. Case no. 04-001263-AZ. Dean S. Hazel and Richard John Champion v. William Meyer (Gov't official). WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS, Champion and a fellow patient filed a frivolous, handwritten lawsuit in state court against the same government official who Champion had already sued in federal court for the imaginary violations of their imaginary legal rights.
    https://www.google.com/search?rlz=1...&ved=0ahUKEwiY7v_7w87kAhVeGDQIHUrHAyIQ4dUDCAY.
    On 04-27-2005, the judge unceremoniously dismissed the case (threw it out of court) without Champion even having effectuated service on the defendant. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (20). 12-13-2004. Richard John Champion v. Center For Forensic Psychiatry, Case no. 259667. When the Washtenaw County judge dismissed (threw out) Champion's frivolous lawsuit against William Meyer above (#19), AND WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS,Champion filed an appeal of that TOTAL LOSS in the Michigan Court Of Appeals. But, instead of filing an appeal, Champion purported to file a lawsuit against the Ypsilanti Center For Forensic Psychiatry in the Michigan Court Or Appeals, which does not handle lawsuits (it only handles APPEALS, something entirely different from lawsuits). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EB6_xxOJMM4. Champion styled his lawsuit a "complaint for habeas corpus" (means "show me the body [the elements] of the crime"). This type of action does not apply to patients suing mental institutions. It only applies as a defense in a criminal case before conviction. To make matters worse, Champion filed it in the wrong court. The Court Of Appeals dismissed the "appeal". A TOTAL LOSS.

    (21). 12-22-2004. Federal District Court For the Eastern District Of Michigan. Champion v. Monroe County, et al. 2:04-cv-74694-GER-MKM. The day after the federal judge dismissed (threw out) Champion's federal court lawsuit against Meyer for the imaginary violations of his imaginary legal rights above (and WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS), Champion filed in federal court an identical lawsuit to the one that the federal court had just dismissed (thrown out of court). But this time, Champion named dozens of OTHER government officials for the same imaginary violations of the same imaginary legal rights. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rka2UeWSZwo. Not surprisingly, five weeks later on 01-31-2005, the judge also unceremoniously dismissed this case (threw it out of court). A TOTAL LOSS.

    (22). 03-14-2005. Champion was released from the (Ypsilanti) Center For Forensic Psychiatry. Note that the “Center For Forensic Psychiatry” may be the successor to the Ypsilanti Center For Forensic Psychiatry”. https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71550_2941_4868_4896_92486-495570--,00.html. Note that the source for this information was an entry dated 03-14-2005 in the court file index in Richard John Champion v. Center For Forensic Psychiatry. Case no. 259667. Champion had been involuntarily incarcerated in the (Ypsilanti) Center For Forensic Psychiatry since 11-10-2004. Thus, Champion was incarcerated in the center for a little over 4 months this particular time. When released from the mental institution, Champion was 57 years of age. Champion may have been released from the mental institution only to go back to jail to finish the remainder of the sentence imposed on him in case # 16 above. The records I have do not say whether Champion was released to jail or released to civilian life. NOT A CASE.

    (23). 04-27-2005. The Michigan Court of Appeals closed "Richard John Champion v. Center For Forensic Psychiatry" (because Champion had already been released from the mental institution in # 22 above). NOT A CASE.

    (24). 05-13-2005. Macomb County Sheriff. 200505131747. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. Police arrested Champion in the City of Roseville and charged him with CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS. On 05-22-2005, Champion was CONVICTED AND SENTENCED. The sentence is unknown. Further, details are not available. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (25) 2009. Beginning in 2009 when Champion was approximately 62 years old, Champion began producing a series of YouTube videos wherein he pretended to be "Carl Miller" and a "highly decorated hero of the Vietnam War". In his videos, Champion also pretended to be a "constitutional scholar" and claimed to have an in-court "win-loss rate of 92%". NOT A CASE.

    Shortly thereafter, a follower of Champion assembled Champion's video teachings into a book. The book amounts to a collection of every mistake that amateur legal theorists get wrong about the law ALL OF WHICH ARE PROVEN FAILURES IN COURT. That book is posted at the top of this expose'. NOT A CASE.

    CONCLUSION:
    Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he is not really "Carl Miller", an alias he uses to avoid arrest and to prevent his followers from ever learning the truth about him. Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he is not really a "highly decorated hero of the Vietnam War", his unit was not the subject of "the famous movie, Apocalypse Now" or the best-selling book "Apache Sunrise". Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he was never "inducted into the top secret project, 'Blue Book'" and never served under a famous general in "Operation Eagle Snatch". Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he is not a "constitutional scholar" who "delights in tying legal prosecutors in knots, often winning the praise and respect from judges" in the process. Most importantly, Richard John Champion never "studied law for 25 years" and never "ha[d] a win-loss rate of 92%".

    ABOUT SNOOP4TRUTH:
    Snoop4truth is a legal expert and whistle blower who exposes online hoaxes. Snoop4truth did not reveal this information to harm Richard John Champion. Instead, Snoop4truth revealed this information solely to reduce the CATASTROPHIC DAMAGE that such intentional fraud inflicts upon the American people every single day. Had it not been for Richard Champion's role in the "Carl Miller Hoax", Snoop4truth would not have revealed this information here.

    The message to all charlatans and hoaxers? Just tell the truth. The truth does not fear investigation. Only lies fear investigation. The truth can be supported by using the truth. Only lies must be supported by using hoaxes (other lies). There is no such thing as a "good reason" to intentionally defraud the American people, not even to make a popular (and sensational) amateur legal theory appear to be true.

    For the hoaxes of DEBORAH TAVARES, click here. https://www.waccobb.net/forums/show...spiracy-weaponized-weather-fires-depopulation)

    For the hoaxes of
    ROD CLASS, click here.
    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/showthread.php?99447-Rod-Class-his-many-hoaxes

    For the hoaxes of EDDIE CRAIG, click here.

    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...y-sheriff-hoax
     
  13. TnAndy

    TnAndy Senior Member Founding Member

    You write on and on and on about court cases that often use the 10th amendment as justification for the States having the power to control motor vehicles.

    You have omitted the 9th amendment:

    The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

    The authors of the Constitution could not possibly forsee the technology of the future, thus many natural rights of people to do every day, ordinary activities were not spelled out in previous amendments,

    OR

    The authors couldn't possibly conceive of some govt need to regulate a man getting in his wagon and driving it to town....the notion being silly, and not worthy of a specific amendment it was such obvious common sense.....thus the 9th amendment and it's wording.

    IF by your (and the courts) logic govt can turn driving into a regulated privilege, there is a nearly unlimited scope of activities that could follow: Is the use of a pressure cooker....(they have been used in bombs).....the use of indoor plumbing....putting a bandaid on a cut......raising your own food.....collection of sun on solar panels to bypass electrical grids.....and a million other 'normal human activities' a right or a privilege subject to govt tax and control ??

    The purpose of govt, though never stated, but patently obvious, is control of people and growth/protection of itself. When the State announces any new control, for the most part it is accepted by common folks that don't have the time, energy or money to contest it. The courts, for the most part, merely sanction that control because they are part of the problem, not a safe guard of liberty that they should be. THAT is inconsistent with the 9th amendment, and the Constitution as a whole.....which was designed to limit govt, not leave it wide open to subject us to more and more control. It has become little better than the "divine" right of kings we had before. At least then, you could point to ONE guy and say "he is the problem".

    The ULTIMATE right, also not spelled out in the Constitution, but included in the 9th.....as well as a previous fairly famous document, is the RIGHT OF SELF DETERMINATION.

    "We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness."
     
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  14. Tackleberry

    Tackleberry Krieg Hündchen

    The 10th amendment gives the power to the individual states to create their own statutes. When said states create traffic laws you have to abide by them, and yes, it is constitutional.

    If you do not like them, contact your legislators and let them know what you think. But remember, it is all constitutional for the states to make these laws. DL, MHV, insurance, seat belt, DUI, etc...

    Every time I hear the whole right to travel spiel I have to laugh out loud.
     
    mysterymet, chelloveck and Ganado like this.
  15. TnAndy

    TnAndy Senior Member Founding Member

    And yet, there WAS a reason the 9th was inserted before the 10th.

    What do you think the 9th means ?
     
    Ganado likes this.
  16. Tackleberry

    Tackleberry Krieg Hündchen

    “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”

    Obviously it advises the people have rights even if they aren’t specifically spelled out. It does not nullify the individual state’s right to regulate traffic with the creation of statute as granted through the 10th amendment.

    What ‘right to travel’ types are advocating is anarchy. Drunk? They have the right to travel. Unlicensed and blind? Right to travel. Uninsured and run into someone else's car? Right to travel. Get my point? Anarchy. This is why the 10th is there.
     
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  17. snoop4truth

    snoop4truth Monkey

    THE CARL MILLER HOAX:
    Temporary Printing Window

    VIDEOS OF CARL MILLER ENGAGED IN THE HOAX:










    Re-Empowerment of the States Amendment
    Humor: Carl Miller on Dollars, 1995

    DOCUMENT REFLECTING THE HOAX:
    http://www.myprivateaudio.com/carltext.pdf (This document was compiled by J.R. Butler of BeatTheCourt.com and is a transcript of the teachings of Carl Miller from his YouTube.com videos. This document amounts to a "check list" of every legal mistake that amateur legal theorists make about the law, ALL OF WHICH ARE PROVEN FAILURES IN COURT.).

    THE HOAX:
    Carl Miller claims to be a "constitutional scholar" who "delights in tying legal prosecutors in knots, often winning the praise and respect from judges" in the process. Miller also claims to be a "highly decorated hero of the Vietnam War" whose unit was the subject of "the famous movie, 'Apocalypse Now' and the best selling book, 'Apache Sunrise'." Further, Miller also claims to have been "inducted into the top secret project, 'Blue Book'"and claims to have served under a famous General in "Operation 'Eagle Snatch'." But most importantly, Miller claims to have "studied law for 25 years" and claims to have "a win-loss rate of over 90%" in court. But, none of these claims are so.

    THE TRUTH:
    Carl Miller's real name is Richard John Champion. "Carl Miller" is an alias which Champion uses to avoid arrest and to prevent his followers from ever learning the truth about him. Champion is actually a MULTI-CONVICTED, WEAPONS-RELATED FELON, a CAREER CRIMINAL and a THREE-TIME HABITUAL OFFENDER. Champion HAS BEEN REPEATEDLY DIAGNOSED WITH A SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS and was TWICE INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY (a mental institution). ypsi...=1568478265716 - Google Search.

    Champion is not a "highly decorated [war] hero". Instead, CHAMPION WAS ACTUALLY "SEPARATED" FROM THE ARMY BECAUSE HE WAS DIAGNOSED AS WITH A SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS AND DEEMED UNFIT TO EVEN SERVE. (Some "highly decorated [war] hero"). (Champion's act of claiming to be a "highly decorated [war] hero" is itself a federal offense. Stolen Valor Act of 2005 - Wikipedia.). Further, there is no record of a project "Blue Book" or an "Operation Eagle Snatch" in relation to the Vietnam War. (The REAL Project "Blue Book" actually relates UFOs. Project Blue Book - Wikipedia. And, "Operation Eagle Snatch" is actually a game played with G.I. Joe action figures. Images and Photos from #gijoe118scale - Nusgram. BE SURE TO SCROLL DOWN).

    Most importantly, Champion knows nothing of the constitution or the law and, therefore, HAS A 100% FAILURE RATE IN COURT WHEN REPRESENTING HIMSELF. (Some "constitutional scholar" who ties "prosecutors in knots" and who wins "praise and respect from judges".).

    ABOUT CARL MILLER:
    Carl Miller's real name is "Richard John Champion". The name, "Carl Miller" is his alias, as is "Carl Miller Jackson" and "Carl Michael Jackson", all of which he uses to avoid arrest and to prevent his followers from ever learning the truth about him.

    Champion was born on 08-01-1947 in Boulder, Colorado. He is the oldest of seven Champion siblings, including Mary Ann, Thomas, Christopher, John, William and Paul Francis. In 1958, Champion's father passed away when Champion was approximately 11 years old. From 08-01-1962 until 01-15-1962, Champion was involuntarily-hospitalized in Ypsilanti, Michigan for a severe mental illness. At that time, Champion was approximately 14 years old. Champion was issued his Social Security card in 1963 in Michigan when he was approximately 15 years old. (Social Security number withheld.). As of 10-07-1969, when Champion was 22 years old, he had never been married. On the same date, military doctors diagnosed Champion with a "behavioral disorder" which they did not regard as severe enough to disqualify him from military service (a decision they would later reverse). It is unclear whether Champion was drafted or joined, but he served in the Army from late in 1969 to 1972 and re-entered the service in 1976. A year later, on 05-24-1977, doctors at the Tripler Army Military Medical Center diagnosed Champion with a SEVERE MENTAL ILLNESS "manifested by underlying hostility, anger, righteousness, rigidity and precipitating stress." On that same date, military doctors "highly advised" that Champion "be separated from the service" and he was. (Some "highly decorated [war] hero".).

    At some point between 10-07-1969 and the end of 1973, Champion was married. During 1973, Champion's wife gave birth to a daughter, Sarah A. Champion. In 1975, Champion and his wife were legally divorced. Champion was then approximately 25 years old. Five years later in 1980, when Champion was approximately 33 years old, Champion began a life of crime that continues to this very day. See proof below.

    During 1990, Champion was employed by The Chrysler Corporation for 10 months. Champion was then approximately 43 years old. At some point thereafter, Champion was also employed by Modern Engineering Company. Both jobs were located in southeastern Michigan.

    At some point, Champion lost touch with his daughter, Sarah. As an young adult, Sarah spent a considerable amount of time and money trying to locate her estranged father. By 10-31-1997 when she was 24 years old, Sarah had actually hired a private investigative firm in Melbourne, Florida (likely where she lived) to locate her estranged father to no avail (likely because Champion was then using the alias, "Carl Miller"). Sarah had also written to the Veteran's Center in Grand Rapids, Michigan seeking his whereabouts to no avail (again likely because Champion was then using the alias "Carl Miller").

    By 10-31-1997, Champion was 50 years old and effectively homeless. He often used a Post Office Box in the City Of Warren, Wacomb County, Michigan to receive mail and occasionally stayed with his brother, Paul, in Detroit, Michigan. (Address withheld.). But, Champion spent much of the time living in a "Scottie-type camper trailer" which he pulled behind his 20-year-old Chevy Suburban and which he parked overnight on rural properties owned by members of a "militia" group with whom he shared anti-government views and an interest in exotic firearms and weapons. (Addresses withheld.).

    Champion is currently 72 years old and 5' 9" or 5' 10" tall. His weigh fluctuates between 204 and 230 pounds. While voter records put him in the City Of St. Clair Shores, Warren County, Michigan, Champion actually lives in (or recently lived in) the City Of Warren, Macomb County, Michigan in area codes 48089-4781, 48091-2043 and 48042-4039. (Addresses withheld.).

    CHAMPION'S CIVIL AND CRIMINAL HISTORY AND HIS ALLEGED 92% WIN-LOSS RATE:
    (1). 11-17-1980. Macomb Co. Case no. 1980-001432-FY. Champion was arrested and charged with CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS, consisting of a handgun, a knife and "karate sticks" (a FELONY). Champion asked to represent himself. Before ruling on that question, the judge sought to determine whether Champion was even legally competent to make the decision to represent himself. So, the judge ordered Champion to undergo a psychiatric examination. Champion apparently failed the examination, because the court nevertheless appointed an attorney to represent Champion and that attorney actually won the case at trial (likely on the grounds that Champion, being mentally ill, could not have formulated the necessary "intent" to commit the crime). Note that Champion can in no way take credit for the victory of his court-appointed attorney (with whom Champion fought tooth and nail). On 06-30-1982, the court closed the case.

    (2). 04-03-1983. Macomb Co. Case no. 1983-000384-AR. This case is truly hard to believe. Despite that his court-appointed attorney had already "WON" the case for him at the trial court (case #1 above), Champion was extremely dissatisfied and actually appealed his own acquittal and sought the reversal of his own attorney's "VICTORY" in that case (likely because his attorney used Champion's mental illness as a defense or because the attorney did not use amateur legal theories in winning the case, such as "strawman", "flesh and blood", "split personality", no "consent to jurisdiction", "capital letters", "admiralty", imaginary constitutional violations, etc.). On 9-27-1984, the appellate court dismissed Champion's appeal and remanded the "case" back to the trial court (threw it out of the appellate court). After this remand, nothing else occurred in the "case". The very fact that Champion would actually appeal his own acquittal and actually seek the reversal of a case that his own court-appointed attorney had already WON for him reflects that Champion was indeed mentally. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (3). 08-04-1993. Federal Bureau Of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. Investigation No. 33612-93-3033-U. Federal authorities found Champion's Ford "Step Van" abandoned. When they searched the vehicle, they found : (1) a Ruger, Model 10-22, .22 caliber Carbine military rifle with scope and silencer; (2) a U.S. Carbine M-1, .30 caliber military rifle; (3) EIGHT (8) "Pine Cone" HAND GRENADES; and (4) TWO (2) M-80 Explosive Devices. As a result, the ATF Detroit Office (not the federal prosecutor's office) recommended that a federal warrant be issued for Champion's arrest. NOT YET A CASE. .

    (4). 08-17-1993 (later re-filed on 12-20-1994). US v. Champion. Warrant no. 2:1993-mi-80834. Pursuant to the foregoing federal arrest warrant (#3 above), Champion was arrested for POSSESSION OF AN UNREGISTERED MACHINE GUN, POSSESSION OF A SILENCER and POSSESSION OF AN EXPLOSIVE DEVICE. NOT YET A CASE.

    (5). 9-15-1994. Federal District Court For The Eastern District Of Michigan. In this case, Champion hired a lawyer and sued Burger King for a personal injury (ex: "slip-n-fall", "food poisoning", etc.). Champion's lawyer filed the case in federal court because of "diversity of citizenship" between Champion and Burger King (meaning that each party was a resident of a different state). But, on 11-01-1994, the federal judge remanded the case to state court (likely because there was no real "diversity of citizenship" between Champion and Burger King or because the amount in controversy did not meet the federal minimum requirements for federal "diversity" jurisdiction). The case was not litigated further and on 10-26-1994, the state court judge "terminated" it. A TOTAL LOSS

    (6). 11-20-1994. Fraser Police Department. Incident Report Nos. 409-8982-94, 949210, 9011-201994. The Fraser Police arrested Champion and charged him with FIVE (5) COUNTS OF CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS IN A MOTOR VEHICLE. At the time of his arrest, Fraser Police found handguns in Champion's car and one additional "COCKED, LOADED HANDGUN" WHICH CHAMPION HAD BEEN CARRYING AND CONCEALING "IN HIS CROTCH AREA". Police also found five (5) handcuff keys on Champion (meaning that elsewhere, Champion possessed FIVE (5) HANDCUFFS, presumably for his PRISONERS or HOSTAGES). NOT YET A CASE.

    (7). 12-08-1994. Macomb Co. Case no. 1994-002866-FH. Champion was charged with FIVE (5) counts of CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS IN A MOTOR VEHICLE (four firearms and one switchblade). Champion asked to represent himself. So, the court ordered Champion to undergo a psychiatric examination to determine whether he was competent enough to make the decision to represent himself. The psychiatrist determined Champion was at least competent enough to make the decision to represent himself (not competent enough to actually represent himself). So, the court allowed Champion to represent himself. On 12-06-1995, WHILE CHAMPION WAS REPRESENTING HIMSELF, A JURY FOUND CHAMPION "GUILTY" ON ALL FIVE COUNTS, A TOTAL LOSS. FOUR OF WHICH WERE FELONIES. On 01-10-1996, the court sentenced Champion to FIVE YEARS PROBATION, conditioned on him NOT POSSESSING WEAPONS DURING THAT ENTIRE PERIOD and paying the costs of his probation. A TOTAL LOSS.

    Unfortunately by 12-26-1997, Champion had already violated his probation (failure to pay) and the judge issued a bench warrant and had him arrested. But, then Champion paid what he owed and the court released him from jail. By 06-08-1999, Champion had again violated his probation (failure to pay) and again the judge issued a bench warrant and had him arrested. But again, Champion paid what he owed and the court again released from jail. On 05-16-2005, Champion was arrested again. But this time, Champion was arrested for POSSESSION OF WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON. (Note that this arrest occurred AFTER the FIVE YEAR probation period.). Apparently, due to Champion's mental illness, the court appointed an attorney to represent him in the POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AS A CONVICTED FELON portion of the case. But, after discussing defense strategy with Champion, the attorney moved to withdraw as Champion's attorney (likely because the attorney sought to use Champion's mental illness as a defense or because the attorney refused to use amateur legal theories in his defense, "strawman", "flesh and blood", "split personality", no "consent to jurisdiction", "capital letters", "admiralty", imaginary constitutional violations, etc.). The court granted the attorney's motion to withdraw. On 07-07-2005, WHILE REPRESENTING HIMSELF, CHAMPION ACTUALLY PLEAD GUILTY to POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AS A CONVICTED FELON and WAS AGAIN SENTENCED TO FIVE [5] MORE YEARS PROBATION CONDITIONED ON HIM NOT POSSESSING ANY WEAPONS FOR THAT ENTIRE PERIOD. A TOTAL LOSS. Note that despite that VIOLATIONS OF PROBATION and POSSESSION OF WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON are new and separate crimes, all three of these ADDITIONAL VIOLATIONS are FILED TOGETHER IN THIS SAME CASE. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (8). 12-15-1995. US v. Champion. Case no. 2:1993-cr-80834. The underlying facts of this case are described in #2 and #3 above. The information in this paragraph was found on "Federal Criminal Docket Search", but this case does not appear on Pacer.gov (the official federal government docket/case website). No further documents were found from any source. This strongly suggests that federal prosecutors never actually filed an indictment or information against Champion in this case. Regardless, this case was closed on 12-15-1995, eight (8) years after Champion's arrest. This "closing" is likely a reference to an act by the ATF itself and not an act by the federal courts. No other information is available about this case from any source. NOT A CASE FILED IN ANY COURT.

    (9). 10-28-1997 Hillsdale Co. Hillsdale County issued an arrest warrant for Champion for OBSTRUCTION OF JUSTICE (a 5 year FELONY) and for RESISTING AND OBSTRUCTING AN OFFICER (a 2 year Misdemeanor). NOT YET A CASE.

    BACKGROUND:
    Michigan State Police were searching for Paul David Darland, A FUGITIVE CHARGED WITH THE MURDER OF A FELLOW MILITIA MEMBER.
    Witness describes accused militia killer as "calm," "proud"
    Militia member sent to prison for conspiracy.
    Champion was a well-known associate of Darland who provided Darland with legal advice and legal assistance. But when police interviewed Champion about Darland, Champion denied knowing Darland and denied knowing his whereabouts. (These denials resulted in the OBSTRUCTION charges immediately above in #9.). Regardless, thereafter, police secretly followed Champion in the hopes that he would unwittingly lead them to Darland. NOT YET A CASE.

    (10). 10-31-1997. On 10-31-1997, after several days of following Champion and after obtaining a search warrant, police raided the rural property of a militia member on whose property Champion lived in his "Scotty-Type Trailer". (Note that this was not Darland's property and Darland was not there at the time.). In Champion's trailer, police found: (1) a Chinese Norinco assault-type rifle, semi-automatic, 7.62 caliber; (2) an MKI long-branch, bolt-action rifle with scope, 7.62 caliber; (3) a Winchester 30-30 rifle, Ranger model; (4) a Mossberg Model 500A, 12 gauge shotgun, pump-action; (5) a Savage Arms, Model 67-E, 410 gauge, single-action shotgun with camouflaged fabric case; (6) a Dana Model 45 pellet rifle, caliber 5.05/20; (7) a Springfield 12 gauge double-barrel with sawed-off barrels and stock; (8) a Chinese made black nylon stock rifle, unknown manufacturer; (9) a Ruger .22 caliber rifle with scope, Model 10/22; (10) an Ejercito Argentine Colt .45 caliber handgun with black holster along with several large foot locker boxes of ammunition. NOT YET A CASE.

    (11). 12-26-1997. Wacomb Co. 199712261601. Warrant no. 942866FH. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. A Wacomb County judge issued an arrest warrant for Champion's arrest for CARRYING A CONCEALED WEAPON. NOT YET A CASE.

    (12). 12-26-1997. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. Pursuant to the warrant directly above (#11), the Mt. Clemons Police Department arrested Champion for CARRYING A CONCEALED WEAPON. For reasons that are not clear, this warrant and this arrest did not result in an actual case being filed in court. We have been unable to locate further records on this case. NOT YET A CASE.

    (13). 01-09-1998. As a result weapons found inside Champion's "Scotty-Type" trailer during the raid above (# 10 above) . St. Clair County recommended that a FELONY warrant be issued for Champion's arrest for POSSESSION OF FIREARMS BY A CONVICTED FELON (a 5 year FELONY), POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON (a 2 year FELONY) and COMMITTING A CRIME AS A HABITUAL OFFENDER - SECOND OFFENSE (a FELONY). NOT YET A CASE.

    (14). 01-26-1998. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. Pursuant to the warrant issued directly above (#13), St. Clair County arrested Champion for POSSESSION OF FIREARMS BY A CONVICTED FELON (a 5 year FELONY) and POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON (a 2 year FELONY). At the time of his arrest, Champion was then in possession of (1) a Mossberg .12 gauge pump-action shotgun, Model 855; (2) a .30 caliber M-1 Carbine military rifle made by Inland manufacturing; (3) a Chinese bolt-action rifle; (4) an AKS 7.62 assault rifle manufactured by PolyTech; (5) a MAK90 Norinco Sporter 7.62 caliber rifle; (6) a .12 gauge New England single-shot shotgun, Pardner Model SB; (7) a Auto Ordinance Corporation, Model 1911A1 U.S. Army .45 caliber handgun, BSA; (8) S&W Model SW40C, BSA .40 caliber handgun; (9) a S7W Model 64-3m SSR, 6 shot handgun; (10) a Ruger .45 caliber, new Model Blackhawk handgun, BSR; (11) a S&W Model 14-3, 38 caliber, 6 shot handgun; (12) a Browning .22 caliber BSA rifle; and (13) a Remington Model 1100, .12 gauge automatic shotgun. NOT YET A CASE.

    (15). 03-04-1998. The underlying case (#10, #13 above) was filed against Champion in the Circuit Court For St. Clair Co. Case no. 98-00753-FH. On 05-28-1999. Champion was CONVICTED IN A JURY TRIAL FOR POSSESSION OF FIREARMS BY A CONVICTED FELON (a 5 year FELONY) and POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON (a 2 year FELONY). Sentence unknown. I have been unable to locate more information on this case. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (16). 08-11-2004. Monroe Co. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. On 08-11-2004, Monroe Sheriff arrested Champion and charged him with SEVEN (7) COUNTS, five counts of CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS, one count of POSSESSING WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON and one count of POSSESSION OF AN ILLEGAL WEAPON. Champion's lawyer negotiated a plea deal whereby Champion would plead "NO CONTEST" (treated as a "GUILTY" PLEA) TO THE FIRST TWO COUNTS on the condition that the state would drop all remaining charges INCLUDING THE CHARGE HABITUAL OFFENDER THIRD OFFENSE CHARGE. On 11-10-2004, CHAMPION PLEAD "NO CONTEST" TO POSSESSION OF FIREARMS AS A CONVICTED FELON (TREATED AS A "GUILTY" PLEA), WAS CONVICTED AND WAS SENTENCED TO JAIL. A LOSS.

    (17). 11-15-2004. Macomb Co. 2004-182304-CA. While Champion was serving jail time for POSSESSION WEAPONS AS A CONVICTED FELON (#16 directly above), the State Of Michigan DIAGNOSED CHAMPION WITH A MENTAL ILLNESS AND (ACCORDING TO CHAMPION HIMSLF) INSTITUTIONALIZED HIM IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY. Ypsilanti state hospital aadl.org - Google Search. But, there is some indication online that this particular mental institution was closed in 1991. Regardless, Champion was institutionalized in some mental institution in southern Michigan. While there, Champion would also be on powerful medication which would render him "incoherent". Further while there, Champion would have no access to mail, telephones, fax machines, computers or any other means of communication. As a result, Champion was, at least temporarily, unable to manage his own financial and legal affairs. So, the State Of Michigan sought to have a conservator appointed, at least temporarily, to handle Champions financial and legal affairs for him. The judge agreed and on 01-20-2005 appointed a conservator to handle Champion's financial and legal affairs. A TOTAL LOSS. A year and a half later on 6-19-2006, because such was apparently a temporary measure or because Champion had been discharged from the Center For Forensic Psychiatry (# 23 below), the judge discharged the conservator and closed the case. Further details are not available.

    (18). 12-01-2004. Federal District Court For the Eastern District Of Michigan. Champion v. Meyer. 2:2004cv74693-VAR-MKM. WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS, Champion filed a frivolous, handwritten lawsuit in federal court against a government official who he blamed for his conviction and for the imaginary violations of his imaginary legal rights. Patients Ypsilanti state hospital aadl.org - Google Search.
    CHAMPION’S WRITINGS IN THIS CASE ARE A “MUST READ”! (They are available on Pacer.gov. and will be linked to as soon as possible.). The judge dismissed the case (threw it out of court) on 12-21-2004, less than three weeks later. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (19). 12-06-2004. Washtenaw County Court. Case no. 04-001263-AZ. Dean S. Hazel and Richard John Champion v. William Meyer (Gov't official). WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS, Champion and a fellow patient filed a frivolous, handwritten lawsuit in state court against the same government official who Champion had already sued in federal court for the imaginary violations of their imaginary legal rights (#19 above).
    Ypsilanti state hospital building aadl.org - Google Search.
    On 04-27-2005, the judge unceremoniously dismissed the case (threw it out of court) without Champion even having effectuated service on the defendant. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (20). 12-13-2004. Richard John Champion v. Center For Forensic Psychiatry, Case no. 259667. When the Washtenaw County judge dismissed (threw out) Champion's frivolous lawsuit against William Meyer above (#19), AND WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS, Champion filed an appeal of that TOTAL LOSS in the Michigan Court Of Appeals. But, instead of filing an true appeal, Champion purported to file a lawsuit against the Ypsilanti Center For Forensic Psychiatry in the Michigan Court Or Appeals, which does not handle lawsuits (it only handles APPEALS, something entirely different from lawsuits). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EB6_xxOJMM4YouTube. Champion styled his lawsuit a "complaint for habeas corpus" (means "show me the body [the elements] of the crime"). This type of action does not apply to patients suing mental institutions. It only applies as a defense in a criminal case before conviction. To make matters worse, Champion filed it in the wrong court. The Court Of Appeals dismissed the "appeal". A TOTAL LOSS.

    (21). 12-22-2004. Federal District Court For the Eastern District Of Michigan. Champion v. Monroe County, et al. 2:04-cv-74694-GER-MKM. The day after the federal judge dismissed (threw out) Champion's federal court lawsuit against Meyer for the imaginary violations of his imaginary legal rights above (and WHILE CHAMPION WAS INVOLUNTARILY-INCARCERATED IN THE YPSILANTI CENTER FOR FORENSIC PSYCHIATRY FOR HIS MENTAL ILLNESS), Champion filed in federal court an identical lawsuit to the one that the federal court had just dismissed (thrown out of court). But this time, Champion named dozens of OTHER government officials for the same imaginary violations of the same imaginary legal rights. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rka2UeWSZwoYouTube. Not surprisingly, five weeks later on 01-31-2005 , the judge also unceremoniously dismissed this case (threw it out of court). A TOTAL LOSS.

    (22). 03-14-2005. Champion was released from the Center For Forensic Psychiatry. (Note that the “Center For Forensic Psychiatry” may be the successor to the "Ypsilanti Center For Forensic Psychiatry”.). https://www.michigan.gov/mdhhs/0,5885,7-339-71550_2941_4868_4896_92486-495570--,00.html. Note that the source for this information was an entry dated 03-14-2005 in the court file index in Richard John "Champion v. Center For Forensic Psychiatry". Case no. 259667. Champion had been involuntarily incarcerated in the Center For Forensic Psychiatry since 11-10-2004. Thus, Champion was incarcerated in the center for a little over 4 months this particular time. When released from the mental institution, Champion was 57 years of age. Champion may have been released from the mental institution only to go back to jail to finish the remainder of the sentence imposed on him in case # 16 above. The records I have do not say whether Champion was released to jail or released to civilian life. NOT A CASE.

    (23). 04-27-2005. The Michigan Court of Appeals closed "Richard John Champion v. Center For Forensic Psychiatry" (because Champion had already been released from the mental institution in # 22 above). NOT A CASE.

    (24). 05-13-2005. Macomb County Sheriff. 200505131747. NOTE THAT THIS IS NOT A DUPLICATE OF ANY OF THE CHARGES IN THE PROCEEDING CASES. Police arrested Champion in the City of Roseville and charged him with CARRYING CONCEALED WEAPONS. On 05-22-2005, Champion was CONVICTED AND SENTENCED. The sentence is unknown. Further, details are not available. A TOTAL LOSS.

    (25) 2009. Beginning in 2009 when Champion was approximately 62 years old, Champion began producing a series of YouTube videos wherein he pretended to be "Carl Miller" and a "highly decorated hero of the Vietnam War". In his videos, Champion also pretended to be a "constitutional scholar" and claimed to have an in-court "win-loss rate of 92%". NOT A CASE.

    Shortly thereafter, a follower of Champion assembled Champion's video teachings into a book. The book amounts to a collection of every mistake that amateur legal theorists get wrong about the law ALL OF WHICH ARE PROVEN FAILURES IN COURT. That book is posted at the top of this expose'. NOT A CASE.

    CONCLUSION:
    Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he is not really "Carl Miller", an alias he uses to avoid arrest and to prevent his followers from ever learning the truth about him. Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he is not really a "highly decorated hero of the Vietnam War", his unit was not the subject of "the famous movie, Apocalypse Now" or the best-selling book "Apache Sunrise". Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he was never "inducted into the top secret project, 'Blue Book'" and never served under a famous general in "Operation Eagle Snatch". Contrary to the claims of Richard John Champion, he is not a "constitutional scholar" who "delights in tying legal prosecutors in knots, often winning the praise and respect from judges" in the process. Most importantly, Richard John Champion never "studied law for 25 years" and never "ha[d] a win-loss rate of 92%".

    ABOUT SNOOP4TRUTH:
    Snoop4truth is a legal expert and whistle blower who exposes online hoaxes. Snoop4truth did not reveal this information to harm Richard John Champion. Instead, Snoop4truth revealed this information solely to reduce the CATASTROPHIC DAMAGE that such intentional fraud inflicts upon the American people every single day. Had it not been for Richard Champion's role in the "Carl Miller Hoax", Snoop4truth would not have revealed this information here.

    The message to all charlatans and hoaxers? Just tell the truth. The truth does not fear investigation. Only lies fear investigation. The truth can be supported by using the truth. Only lies must be supported by using hoaxes (other lies). There is no such thing as a "good reason" to intentionally defraud the American people, not even to make a popular (and sensational) amateur legal theory appear to be true.

    For the hoaxes of DEBORAH TAVARES, click here.
    https://www.waccobb.net/forums/showt...s-depopulation)

    For the hoaxes of ROD CLASS, click here.
    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...is-many-hoaxes

    For the hoaxes of EDDIE CRAIG, click here.
    http://projectavalon.net/forum4/show...y-sheriff-hoax
     
  18. chelloveck

    chelloveck Diabolus Causidicus

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