Lets talk water storage here

Discussion in 'General Survival and Preparedness' started by Quigley_Sharps, Mar 15, 2006.

  1. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

    The recent postings were found on the net and then copied and pasted here. I'll add more as time goes by to keep this information from falling into the depths of the forum. The thread was started 5 yrs. ago and somehow forgotten about.
  2. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

    [SIZE=+2]How a Hydraulic Ram Pump works[/SIZE]​
    The concept behind the ram idea is a "water hammer" shock wave. Water has weight, so a volume of water moving at a certain speed has momentum - it doesn't want to stop immediately. If a car runs into a brick wall the result is crumpled metal. If a moving water flow in a pipe encounters a suddenly closed valve, a pressure "spike" or increase suddenly appears due to all the water being stopped abruptly (that's what water hammer is - the pressure spike). If you turn a valve off in your house quickly, you may hear a small "thump" in the pipes. That's water hammer. Here's how the hydraulic ram pump actually works, step-by-step:

    (1) Water (blue arrows) starts flowing through the drive pipe and out of the "waste" valve (#4 on the diagram), which is open initially. Water flows faster and faster through the pipe and out of the valve. (Click here to see an actual image of an operating ram pump for this step.) [​IMG]

    (2) At some point, water is moving so quickly through the brass swing check "waste" valve (#4) that it grabs the swing check's flapper, pulling it up and slamming it shut. The water in the pipe is moving quickly and doesn't want to stop. All that water weight and momentum is stopped, though, by the valve slamming shut. That makes a high pressure spike (red arrows) at the closed valve. The high pressure spike forces some water (blue arrows) through the spring check valve (#5 on the diagram) and into the pressure chamber. This increases the pressure in that chamber slightly. The pressure "spike" the pipe has nowhere else to go, so it begins moving away from the waste valve and back up the pipe (red arrows). It actually generates a very small velocity *backward* in the pipe. (Click here to see an actual image of an operating ram pump for this step. Note the drops of water still falling to the ground in the image.) [​IMG]

    (3) As the pressure wave or spike (red arrows) moves back up the pipe, it creates a lower pressure situation (green arrows) at the waste valve. The spring-loaded check valve (#5) closes as the pressure drops, retaining the pressure in the pressure chamber.
    (4) At some point this pressure (green arrows) becomes low enough that the flapper in the waste valve (#4) falls back down, opening the waste valve again. (Click here to see an actual image of a ram pump for this step.)
    (5) Most of the water hammer high pressure shock wave (red arrows) will release at the drive pipe inlet, which is open to the source water body. Some small portion may travel back down the drive pipe, but in any case after the shock wave has released, pressure begins to build again at the waste valve (#4) simply due to the elevation of the source water above the ram, and water begins to flow toward the hydraulic ram again.
    (6) Water begins to flow out of the waste valve (#4), and the process starts over once again.
    Steps 1 through 6 describe in layman's terms a complete cycle of a hydraulic ram pump. Pressure wave theory will explain the technical details of why a hydraulic ram pump works, but we only need to know it works. (One American company has been manufacturing and selling hydraulic rams since the 1880’s). The ram pump will usually go through this cycle about once a second, perhaps somewhat more quickly or more slowly depending on the installation.
    Each "pulse" or cycle pushes a little more pressure into the pressure chamber. If the outlet valve is left shut, the ram will build up to some maximum pressure (called shutoff head on pumps) and stop working.
    The ram is quite inefficient. Usually 8 gallons of water must pass through the waste valve for each 1 gallon of water pumped by the ram. That is acceptable for a creek or river situation, but may not be a good option for a pond that does not have a good spring flow.

    (Page and images copyright 2007 Bryan Smith. All rights reserved.)
  3. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

    Designing a Hydraulic Ram Pump Technical Note No. RWS.4.D.5
    [​IMG]A hydraulic ram or impulse pump is a device which uses the energy of fallingwater to lift a lesser amount of water to a higher elevation than the source.See Figure 1. There are only two moving parts, thus there is littleto wear out. Hydraulic rams are relatively economical to purchaseand install. One can be built with detailed plans and if properlyinstalled, they will give many trouble-free years of service with no pumpingcosts. For these reasons, the hydraulic ram is an attractive solutionwhere a large gravity flow exists. A ram should be considered whenthere is a source that can provide at least seven times more water thanthe ram is to pump and the water is, or can be made, free of trash andsand. There must be a site for the ram at least 0.5m below the watersource and water must be needed at a level higher than the source.

    Factors in Design

    Before a ram can be selected, several design factors must be known.These are shown in Figure 1 and include:

    1. The difference in height between the water source and the pump site(called vertical fall).
    2. The difference in height between the pump site and the point ofstorage or use (lift).
    3. The quantity (Q) of flow available from the source.
    4. The quantity of water required.
    5. The length of pipe from the source to the pump site (called thedrive pipe).
    6. The length of pipe from the pump to the storage site (called thedelivery pipe).
    Once this information has been obtained, a calculation can be made tosee if the amount of water needed can be supplied by a ram. The formulais: D=(S x F x E)/L Where:
    D = Amount delivered in liters per 24 hours.
    S = Quantity of water supplied in liters per minute.
    F = The fall or height of the source above the ram in meters.
    E = The efficiency of the ram (for commercial models use 0.66, forhome built use 0.33 unless otherwise indicated).
    L = The lift height of the point of use above the ram in meters.
    Table 1 solves this formula for rams with efficiencies of 66 percent,a supply of 1 liter per minute, and with the working fall and lift shownin the table. For supplies greater than 1 liter/minute, simply multiplyby the number of liters supplied.

    Table 1. Ram Performance Data for a Supply of 1liter/minute Liters Delivered over 24 Hours Working Fall (m)
    Lift - Vertical Height to which Wateris Raised Above the Ram (m)
    5 - 7.5
    - 10 - 15 - 20 - 30 - 40 - 50 - 60 - 80 - 100 - 125
    Components of Hydraulic Ram
    A hydraulic ram installation consists of a supply, a drive pipe, theram, a supply line and usually a storage tank. These are shown inFigure 1. Each of these component parts is discussed below:
    Supply. The intake must be designed to keep trash and sandout of the supply since these can plug up the ram. If the water is notnaturally free of these materials, the intake should be screened or a settlingbasin provided. When the source is remote from the ram site, the supplyline can be designed to conduct the water to a drive pipe as shown in Figure2. The supply line, if needed, should be at least one pipe diameterlarger than the drive pipe.

    Drive pipe.
    The drive pipe must be made of a non-flexiblematerial for maximum efficiency. This is usually galvanized ironpipe, although other materials cased in concrete will work. In order toreduce head loss due to friction, the length of the pipe divided by thediameter of the pipe should be within the range of 150-1,000. Table2 shows the minimum and maximum pipe lengths for various pipe sizes.

    Table 2. Range of Drive Pipe Lengths
    for Various Pipe Diameters

    Drive Pipe Size (mm) / Length (meters) / Minimum / Maximum

    The drive pipe diameter is usually chosen based on the size of theram and the manufacturer's recommendations as shown in Table 3. Thelength is four to six times the vertical fall.
    Table 3. Drive Pipe Diameters by
    Hydram Manufacturer's Size Number

    Hydram Size
    Pipe Size (mm)[​IMG]

    Rams can be constructed using commercially available check valves orby fabricating check valves. They are also available as manufacturedunits in various sizes and pumping capacities. Rams can be used intandem to pump water if one ram is not large enough to supply the need. Each ram must have its own drive pipe, but all can pump through a commondelivery pipe as shown in Figure 3.In installing the ram, it is important that it be level, securely attachedto an immovable base, preferably concrete, and that the waste-water bedrained away. The pump can-not operate when submerged. Sincethe ram usually operates on a 24-hour basis the size can be determinedfor delivery over a 24-hour period. Table 4 shows hydraulic ram capacitiesfor one manufacturer's Hydrams.

    Table 4. Hydram Capacity by Manufacturer's SizeNumber
    Size of Hydram
    Volume of Drive Water Needed (liters/min)
    Maximum Lift (m)

    Delivery Pipe. The delivery pipe can be of any material thatcan withstand the water pressure. The size of the line can be estimatedusing Table 5.

    Table 5. Sizing the Delivery Pipe
    Delivery Pipe Size (mm) / Flow (liters/min)

    Storage Tank.
    This is located at a level to provide waterto the point of use. The size is based on the maximum demand perday.

    Sizing a Hydraulic Ram
    A small community consists of 10 homes with a total of 60 people. There is a spring l0m lower than the village which drains to a wash whichis 15m below the spring. The spring produces 30,000 liters of waterper day. There is a location for a ram on the bank of the wash. This site is 5m higher than the wash and 35m from the spring. A publicstandpost is planned for the village 200m from the ram site. Thelift required to the top of the storage tank is 23m. The followingare the steps in design.
    Identify the necessary design factors:
    1. Vertical fall is 10m.
    2. Lift is 23m to top of storage tank.
    3. Quantity of flow available equals 30,000 liters per day divided by1,440 minutes per day (30,000/1,440) = 20.8 liters per minute.
    4. The quantity of water required assuming 40 liters per day per personas maximum use is 60 people x 40 liters per day = 2,400 liters per day.
    2,400/1,440 = 1.66 liters per minute (use 2 liters per minute)
    5. The length of the drive pipe is 35m.
    6. The length of the delivery pipe is 200m.
    The above data can be used to size the system. Using Table 1,for a fall of 10m and a lift of 80m, 117 liters can be pumped a day foreach liter per minute supplied. Since 2,400 liters per day is required,the number of liters per minute needed can be found by dividing 2,400 by117:
    2,400/117 = 20.5 liters per minute supply required.
    From item 3 above, the supply available is 20.8 liters per minute sothe source is sufficient.
    Table 3 can now be used to select a ram size. The volume of drivingwater or supply needed is 20.5 liters per minute. From Table 4, aNo. 2 Hydram requires from 12 to 25 liters per minute. A No. 2 Hydram canlift water to a maximum height of 150m according to Table 4. Thiswill be adequate since the lift to the top of the storage tank is 23m. Thus, a No. 2 Hydram would be selected.
    Table 3 shows that for a No. 2 Hydram, the minimum drive pipe diameteris 38mm. Table 2 indicates that the minimum and maximum length fora 40mm pipe (the closest size to 38mm) is 6m-40m. Since the spring is 35maway, the length is all right. Table 5 can be used to select a deliverypipe 30mm in diameter which fits the supply needed, 20.5 liters per minute.
    BTPost likes this.
  4. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

  5. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member



    Briefly, here’s how a Rife Water Ram operates: Water flows down the Drive Pipe to the Ram, developing power in accordance to its weight and velocity. The water then flows through the Outside Valve until it reaches a certain velocity. The Valve then closes shut and water continues through the Inside Rubber Valve. When the water pressure in the Air Chamber equalizes and overcomes the driving force behind it, the water in the Drive Pipe rebounds, or backs up. When the rebound takes place a small amount of air is in sucked through the Air Feed Valve and lodged in the upper portion of the Base. It is then forced into the Air Chamber when the next blow takes place; this prevents the Air Chamber from filling up with water.
    This operation is repeated from 25 to 100 times per minute working on a Hydraulic principle, building up pressure in the Air Chamber, which in turn forces water through the Delivery Pipe up to where it is desired.

    Fig 1 Section Drawing of an "Universal" Heavy Duty Rife Ram.
    Last edited by a moderator: May 2, 2015
  6. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

    Determining the Flow, Fall, Elevation
    For each installation, the following information is necessary:

    • [*]The Flow of water at the source of Supply (in gallons per minute).
      [*]The vertical Fall (in feet) from the source of Supply to the planned location of the Ram.
      [*]The vertical Elevation above the Ram to which the water is to be pumped.
      [*]The distance between the point of Supply and the Ram location, as well the pipe line distance over which the water is to be delivered.
      [*]The number of gallons required per day.

    Fig 2 Usual method of installing a Rife Ram. This may vary, depending on local conditions.

    Flow of Supply Water Available In Gallons Per Minute
    Time the Flow from the Supply in gallons per minute as accurately as possible. Do not guess this-be sure to measure it. If the supply is low, run the water into a bucket or tub of known capacity. This measurement should be taken during the driest season of the year. See Figure 3.
    If the water flow is large and it is not practical to measure Flow with a bucket of tub, use a "Weir" (notch in a board).
    Measure the width of the notch W and the height of the water in the notch H. The height should be measured on a level 2 feet Upstream from the notch as in Figure 4.


    Fig 3 Determining flow of supply by running water into a bucket of known capacity.
    Fig 4 Determine flow of supply using a "weir." This usually is done when flow is large.

    This table gives the number of cubic feet of water that will pass over a weir 1 inch wide and from 1/8 to 10 7/8 inches in depth. The figures in the first upright column represent whole inches and those in the top horizontal line represent fractional parts of an inch of depth over the weir. The figures in the second upright column indicate the number of cubic feet or water that will flow per minute over the weir for whole inches in depth, and in succeeding columns, whole inches and fractions under which they occur. Then the number of cubic feet thus found, multiplied the width of the weir in inches, will give the capacity of the stream.
    Example: to find the required number of cubic feet of water that will flow over a weir 4 ¾ inches in depth and 30 inches in width, follow down the left hand column of figures in table to four, then across until directly under the ¾ in the top line, to 4.14; this, multiplied by 30 ( width of the notch in the weir) will give 124, the number of cubic feet of water that passes over the weir per minute. To reduce to gallons per minute, multiply by 7 ½ to get 930 gallons per minute.

    Determining The Vertical Fall
    The difference in vertical elevation between the level of the water at the source and the planned location of the Ram is known as the Fall. This can be easily and quickly measured by using an ordinary carpenter’s level on a stick. Start at the planned location of the Ram and go upwards, as shown in the following illustration.
    Bear in mind that, all other conditions being the same, the more Fall available, the more water the Ram will pump. For example, the Ram will pump twice as much water with a Fall of 8 feet as it would with a Fall of 4 feet. Therefore, it is advisable to take advantage of as much Fall as possible. In most cases, merely locating the Ram further downstream will provide more Fall.

    Vertical Elevation
    The vertical Elevation is the height to which the water will be pumped above the Ram location. It too can be easily determined by using an ordinary carpenter’s level on a stick as illustrated in Figure 5. Start measurements at the planned location of the Ram and work upward to the highest point at which water will be delivered.

    Fig 5 Determining Vertical Fall and Elevation using a Carpenter’s Level.
    Last edited by a moderator: May 2, 2015
  7. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

    Rife Water Rams

    Installation of Water Rams
    Drive Pipe
    The Drive Pipe should be metal, (usually galvanized steel), unless encased in concrete. In some cases people have successfully used well-anchored PVC plastic pipes. However, for trouble-free operation we recommend that the Drive Pipe be galvanized steel. It should be straight as possible without elbows, and normally the same pipe size as Intake end of the Water Ram. It should be watertight and rigidly anchored, with a Strainer at the source end to keep out refuse from the Ram. See Figure 6.

    The Drive Pipe itself must be of the correct length. Use the following guidelines:

    Length of Drive Pipe / 6 times length of Vertical Fall / 4 times length of Vertical Fall 26-50 feet / 3 times length of Vertical Fall

    Whenever distances exceed the lengths suggested above or when special conditions exist, please ask us for the correct length and diameter of Drive Pipe to assure maximum delivery.
    Fig 6 Usual Drive Pipe arrangement when Supply is nearby. If supply is distant, call us for instructions.

    Foundation and Water Ram Pit
    A concrete slab or a large flat rock provides a good solid foundation on which to set the Ram. The best procedure is to put in a concrete slab as a foundation, slightly sloping towards the rear where the unused water will be carried away. After the Drive Pipe and Delivery Pipe are installed and the Ram is in operation, the Ram should be enclosed in a Concrete Pit. The Ram Pit should be large enough to give a clearance of 18 inches from the Ram on all sides in cases any bolts need to be replaced. The Pit should be high enough to prevent flood water from getting in. A sloping shed roof of boards provides good cover, yet, in colder climates it is better to cover the Pit with a concrete slab to prevent freezing. Use a manhole or a metal cistern for an opening to the Ram Pit.
    Delivery Pipe
    The correct size Delivery Pipe should match the dimension given for each particular size of Ram. Do not install a Delivery Pipe smaller than that is specified. By doing so you increase the amount of friction lost, consequently reducing the amount of water delivered. Avoid right-angled elbows wherever possible. This will minimize friction loss. Do not fill the ditch until the Ram is started and in operation. That way, leaks can be easily located and stopped before water covers the Delivery Pipe.
    The installation of a Gate Valve in the Delivery Pipe at the Ram is a great convenience for cutting off water when it is necessary to adjust or too repair a Ram. The ditch for Delivery Pipe should be sufficiently below the frost line.
    In case the Delivery Line goes over the top of a hill and down into a valley on its way from the Ram to the delivery point, a small Air Release Valve or Pet Cock should be installed in the Delivery Pipe at the highest point to release accumulations of air from time to time. Otherwise, accumulated air will restrict the free flow of the water.
    The overflow pipe should also enter the bottom of the reservoir and terminate with a sleeve joint connection. Into this sleeve joint should be screwed a piece of pipe, the length of which determines the height of water in the reservoir. An emergency overflow should be provided at the top of the reservoir a few inches above the level of the regular overflow.
    Drain Tile
    The Water Ram Pit should be provided with a Drain Tile to carry off unused water. In many cases the total amount of fall can be increased by sinking the Ram Pit deep into the ground and carrying off the unused water though a long line of Drain Tiles of sufficient length to bring it out at water level downstream. In other cases, it is a choice between increasing the length of the Supply Pipe or running a line of Drain Tile. Usually, it is cheaper to use more tile and less pipe.
    General Instructions For Installing Rife Rams
    Rife Rams are easy to install when instructions are closely followed. There are many different ways Rams can be installed, depending mainly on the lay and character of the ground and other local conditions. If your conditions are different from those described here or elsewhere in this Manual, please write to us giving full details of your conditions. We will advise you in writing on the proper method of installing the Ram.
    Last edited by a moderator: May 2, 2015
  8. ColtCarbine

    ColtCarbine Working Monkey Founding Member

    <center> [​IMG]
    <center><hr> The Original ! Hydraulic Ram Pumps
    How and Where They Work

    (ISBN 0-9631526-2-9)
    The ram pump will pump water from a flowing source of water to a point above that source with no other power required. A full description of how to build and install one is contained in this book</center>
    <hr> Home Hydraulic Ram Pumps Atlas Ram Parts Crayfish Farming Red Claw Crayfish Farming <hr> [​IMG]
    </center> The hydraulic ram pump is a reliable, old-time water pump that works just as well today as ever. Ongoing research indicates the Great Pyramid may actually have been a gigantic ram pump..built to pump drinking water to public water fountains in the cities above the Nile flood plain. (Pyramid Pump)
    Often called a water ram, one of these simple devices can pump water from a flowing source of water (spring, creek, river, etc.) to any point above the source, and this without any power requirement except the force of water moving downhill contained inside a 'drive pipe'.
    This rugged and dependable device is typically installed today at remote home sites and cabins that are off the power grid and would otherwise be without a water supply. Sometimes a ram is used as a backup water system, or for watering livestock, gardens, decorative lily ponds, water wheels or fountains. Simply because a ram uses no power opens up a world of possibilities for using water that would otherwise flow on downstream...wasted.
    All that is really required is the surface water source. The water has to be moving...not much, but some. The creek need not be large either - 4 gallons per minute is the minimum.

    <hr><center>TYPICAL RAM PUMP SETUP

    A) Water source; can be a river, stream, spring, or pond.
    (B) Supply pipe. Goes from the source to the collection barrel downstream (below the source).
    (C) Collection barrel or intake barrel. The water is collected here. Water level stays at the level of the source.
    (D) Drive pipe. About 100 ft. long; brings the water to the pump and provides the power to the pump, somewhat like a battering ram. Probably the least understood and most important part of the ram pump system. Typically black plastic pipe, 1" to 2" dia., generally matched to the size of the clack valve on the pump.
    (E) Ram Pump. Starts and stops the movement of the water column in the drive pipe through the clack valve (gold colored). Also redirects a portion of the water (10%-15%) to the pressure tank through the internal check valve or one-way valve. This portion leaves the pump and rises to the end use area through the...
    (F) Delivery pipe which goes to the storage tank, garden, house...wherever the water is needed. Typically of 1/2" or 3/4" black plastic pipe.
    <hr><center>ATLAS RAM PUMP CUTAWAY


    <hr> ABOUT THE ATLAS RAM PUMP<hr> </center> [​IMG]




  9. Quigley_Sharps

    Quigley_Sharps The Badministrator Administrator Founding Member

    to the top
  10. Kingfish

    Kingfish Self Reliant

    I decided that running my existing pump was the answer to my water needs. In a disaster situation with the grid down this is my working set up.

    First we decided that making 240 volt power with solar was not feasible so we decided that our 240 pump would have to run anther way. Step one. W e split our power distribution panels into three panels which can all be Isloated and run together or independently. This gives us lots of options. Somewhere in the archives here is a thread with all of this including pictures. It starts with a new 200 amp main service panel and this panel contains all of our 240 circuits including range, hot water, central air, pump and clothes dryer. Besides the Pump these are NOT necessary circuits during a shtf event. Using an Isolation slider we can cut from the grid by turning off the main 200 amp breaker push up the slider and engage a 40 amp 240 line in which is connected to our 8000 watt Generac Guardian series Propane generator. This unit is new and has been tested. The propane comes from two different lines which are teed. The 500 gallon storage tank holds 400 gallons and is considered full at 80%. The other line into the tee connects to 20,40 or 100 pound cylinders which we own four 100's and four 20's. This gives us a few gallon over 500. We use the smaller tanks for short term and regular test runs. As the Generator is not connected to the grid EVER and is its own faraday cage it is protected against EMP pulse. I calculated use using the manufacturers gallon per hour of the generac which was .94 gallons per hour. I decided that we would run it once for 1/2 each week and store water in ten 7 gallon BPA free water cans we purchased from Walmart. The cans are kept in the basement where its cool and dry and there is zero sunlight. By doing this we can refresh our drinking water every 7 days for 20 years using around 24 to 25 gallons of propane per year. I have spare parts for the generator including oil change kits, cases of oil and a spare generator head. The cost of this system was far less then the same capabilities using solar or wind.

    Now that I have that 1/2 hour per week of 240 I can also run some power tools , welder etc as it only takes 10 minutes to fill the cans. We live on a 209 acre lake so toilet water and water for the animals will come from captured rain or the lake itself. In the event we lose the generator we can still filter and boil lake water for drinking.

    Now that we have this in place we are starting on our 120 volt system of Batteries and solar/wind power to keep the frig and freezer going. We could have sunk a hand well, changed pumps etc but we feel this is the best way we can do it using what is in place. Our well is deep and it needs the 1 hp 20 gpm pump to keep up with current needs. Small propane tanks can be scavenged to extend our fuel supply or add more run time for special needs like welding and power saws. Kingfish
    ColtCarbine and BTPost like this.
  11. PAGUY

    PAGUY Monkey

    This idea is a play on the water heater idea as an ready in place water storage source. In theory this would work if done properly. When you initially fill this source all that would be needed to bleed off the air is a down flow valve. This could be anything from a sink to a shower head. Up stairs from the storage location would be optimal.
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