Ghrit, correct me if I'm wrong on my understanding of how they are trying to keep these reactors cool. I am envisioning a two part containment, first one being the reactor (pressure vessel) itself with piping running through it to cool the reactor. Pumps keep this water circulating through the pressure vessel to keep it cool. Since those pumps are not functioning, the traditional method of cooling the core is no longer working. Outer containment is being treated like a huge bathtub filling it with seawater hoping to keep the reactor cool. Meaning seawater is only in contact with the outer skin of the reactor, in an attempt that the seawater will cool the inner core enough to keep it from going critical (meltdown). How are they able to circulate the seawater as it is heated from cooling the reactor? Or is this part of what they are experiencing, no way to circulate the seawater even with an auxiliary pumps, like sump/garbage pumps. If the seawater is not being circulated out, then what is to prevent the water from turning into steam, much less flashing to steam. You know as well as myself what happens when water flashes to steam. Things go ka-boom, in an instant. There is not any type of container that I am aware of that could contain that amount of force. One gallon of water flashing to steam needs 1700 times the amount of space one gallon of water needed.